setup used for the universal testing machine (AG-X plus 50 kN; Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). In this study, the tensile force and displacement for the roots in the growth medium were measured. The tensile speed was 10 mm⋅min −1 . Measurements were ended once
clamps ( L 0 ) was 10 mm. Paper frames were then cut open and the tensile tests initiated (cross-head speed 1 mm·min −1 ) until failure occurred. The forces applied (10 N, standard force transducer) and the corresponding specimen lengths ( L ) were
greenhouse for ≈3 d before testing the strength of the graft unions using a pull force gauge. Each planted tray contained randomized blocks of the grafted plants for each graft angle. Experiments. Experimental Group 1 ( Table 1 ) used ‘Rutgers’ as a scion and
specimen was 16 mm with the position of the waist arranged in the center between the clamps. An uniaxial tensile force was applied at a constant strain rate of 3 mm·min −1 until failure of the ES or CM. Applied force and crosshead travel (in millimeters
commercial sod production is the ability to form a suitable sod that has sufficient strength to allow intact harvest, handling, and installation ( Beard and Rieke, 1969 ). Sod tensile strength (STS) is defined as the resistance of sod to a minimum amount of
A simple, inexpensive device to measure the linear tear strength (tensile strength) of a strip of turfgrass sod was constructed for use in a research program. The device was fabricated from readily available components. A standard torque wrench served as the force-measuring device, providing torque readings that were converted readily to linear force measurements. The device worked very effectively.
The tensile properties of european pear (Pyrus communis L. `Beurre Bosc') and asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai `Choguro') were examined using a microscope-mounted apparatus that allowed direct observation and recording of cell and tissue changes during testing. To manipulate turgor potential, tissue slices from fruit of different firmness (ripeness) were incubated in sucrose solutions of differing water potential. Solution water potentials were adjusted for individual fruit, and varied between -2.5 and 1 MPa from the water potential of the expressed juice. Fruit firmness declined from 100 to 20 N and from 60 to 25 N during ripening of european and asian pears, respectively. For both european and asian pears the relationship between fruit firmness and tensile strength of tissue soaked in isotonic solutions was sigmoidal, with the major mechanism of tissue failure being cell wall failure and cell fracture at high firmness and intercellular debonding at low firmness. In the intermediate zone, where fruit firmness and tissue tensile strength decreased simultaneously, a mixture of cell wall rupture and intercellular debonding could be observed. Tissue and cell extension at maximum force both declined similarly as fruit softened. Tensile strength of tissue from firm pears (>50 N firmness, >0.8 N tensile strength) decreased by as much as 0.6 N during incubation in solutions that were more concentrated than the cell sap (hypertonic solutions). When similar tissue slices were incubated in solutions that were less concentrated than the cell sap (hypotonic solutions), the tensile strength increased by up to 0.4 N. This is interpreted as stress-hardening of the cell wall in response to an increase in cell turgor. Tensile strength of tissue from soft pears was not affected by osmotic changes, as the mechanism of tissue failure is cell-to-cell debonding rather than cell wall failure.
series (Maxwell model), in parallel (Voigt–Kelvin model) or in combinations of both arrangements [Burgers model ( Schmiedel, 1992 )]. When subjected to a tensile force, stress/strain relationships are obtained that depend on the rate at which the force is
arrangement, and cell wall structure etc.) and material composition of fruits have an effect on their mechanical properties. Puncture, compression, cutting, tensile, shear, and TPA tests are usually used to estimate the maturity or resistance of fruit to force
Quantitative measurement of sod strength has been reported previously in the literature and is typically related to the force required to shear a strip of sod into two separate pieces. Several devices have been designed to quantitatively measure sod