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Marketed as a fresh fruit, the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) has a short shelf life, only 2-3 days at room temperature and up to 3 weeks with refrigeration. There is commercial processing potential for pawpaw pulp in juices, ice cream, yogurt, baked goods, and other products. Consumer acceptability of such products needs to be investigated. One hundred and five attendees of the 2nd Annual Pawpaw Field Day at Kentucky State University (KSU), Frankfort, Ky., participated in a tasting of pawpaw products; 56% of tasters were male; 76% were over 40 years of age; 72% of tasters had eaten pawpaw previously. Each item was rated on a scale from 1 = liked it extremely to 7 = disliked it extremely. Pawpaw ice cream was the best-received item (55% of tasters liked it extremely), followed by pawpaw cake with lemon icing, liked extremely by 45%. The pawpaw/grape juice drink was liked extremely by 31% of participants. Three alternative recipes for pawpaw butter were presented; the plain pawpaw butter was liked extremely by 26% of tasters; pawpaw butter prepared with lemon and grape juice was liked extremely by 11%, while the version prepared with orange and lemon was liked extremely by only 8%. Two versions of pawpaw custard were presented. The custard prepared from ripe, mild-fl avored fruit was liked extremely by 42% of tasters, while the custard prepared from mixed under-ripe, over-ripe and bruised fruit was liked extremely by only 16%. Ratings by persons unfamiliar with pawpaw fl avor were significantly lower (P < 0.05) only for the two pawpaw custards; tasters age 40 years or younger gave significantly higher ratings for pawpaw ice cream (P < 0.05) and significantly lower ratings for both pawpaw custards (select, P < 0.05 and mix, P < 0.01) and the pawpaw/grape juice drink (P < 0.05).

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as crispness, juiciness, and tartness, require consumers to eat the products, which is not always easy due to experimental resource constraints. Many studies that allow consumers to taste apples are often conducted in formal tasting facilities

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County, Jiangxi is generally less than 16%, and this seriously affects fruit taste and flavor. Dry matter is an important index of fruit quality; it determines the fruit flavor and taste of Actinidia fruit when they are eating ripe ( Burdon et al., 2004

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Carrots cv. `Nantes' were grown on a Rugbee soil type which was treated before planting with 1, 5, and 10 MT/ha of moose manure (MM). Each treatment was replicated five times and compared to the standard practice (SP) of 500 kg/ha 10-10-10 fertilizer. No pesticides were used. Yields were difficult to obtain because of bear vandalism. At harvest 10 kg. samples of each were washed and blended in a food processor. A taste panel of 12 members evaluated a 10 ml. sample in a white paper cup. Each panelist was blindfolded because samples differed in color. 98% of the panel members found the MM carrots to have a distinct taste and preferred them over SP carrots. Two weeks after the test 76% of the panel had a craving for wild oats. Carrots from the treatments were held in underground storage for 5 months. To complete the biology cycle an attempt was made to feed the stored treatment carrots to the moose but they would eat only the SP carrots. For samples of the MM carrots contact Bill Miller, Program Co-Chairman, The first person to respond will receive a certificate for a free meal at the Sizzler on Congress Street.

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Face-to-face interviews of produce customers at Kings Super Markets in New Jersey yielded data on consumers' tastes and preferences, quantities purchased, and prices paid for fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Purchase behavior indicated that during the local season, consumers preferred tomatoes grown in New Jersey to tomatoes from other origins. Data were fitted to demand equations to determine the factors affecting demand for fresh tomatoes. Tomato origin significantly influenced consumer purchases. Consumer perceptions of product characteristics such as color, freshness nutrition, and appearance do not appear to significantly influence tomato purchase patterns. However, prices of the) tomatoes or substitutes and income were important determinants of quantity purchased of both New Jersey grown and other tomatoes. New Jersey grown tomatoes were generally perceived to be of superior quality.

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`Caruso' tomatoes were grown in a glass greenhouse in Winter and early Spring 1991. All plants were grown in 16-liter nursery pots. Half the plants were grown in a conventional peat-lite medium (Profi-mix) and were fertilized with synthetic water-soluble fertilizer containing micronutrients and (in ppm) 187 N, 46 P, 278 K, 177 Ca, and 48 Mg. The other plants were grown in a potting medium composed of 1 mature compost (chicken manure and leaves): 1 loam: 2 vermiculite (by volume); this medium was amended with 1.5 kg bone meal (2N–10P–0K) and 3 kg dolomitic lime/m3. The “organic” treatment was fertilized with a fish emulsion solution containing (in ppm) 150 N, 13 P, and 25 K. The experiment was repeated in 1992 with `Capello'. In both years, fruit were harvested around the half-ripe to three-quarters ripe stage. All insect control was with insecticidal soap and bio-control agents. A blind taste test was conducted on campus in both years. In 1991, of 70 participants, 73% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 20% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 7% expressed no preference. In 1992, of 105 participants, 67% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 24% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 10% expressed no preference.

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taste sensations induced by nonvolatile or soluble compounds (sugars, acids, and flavonoids) and aromas from the retronasal perception of volatile compounds. Much is known about the orange juice flavor, effect of cultivars, processing techniques, and

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extremely firm flesh. It is also unclear how firmness and appearance (including red drupelet reversion) compare with other taste attributes such as astringency, acidity, sweetness, and aromatics that might drive consumer purchasing. Consumers want a berry

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English walnuts ( Juglans regia ) are valued for their taste and nutritional quality. English walnuts contain a higher amount of α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, than other tree nuts and also have a 4:1 ratio of linoleic acid to

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Abstract

Internal ethylene levels, fruit firmness, soluble solids content, and starch–iodine reaction in ‘Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were measured weekly for 6 to 8 weeks during fruit maturation for 3 years. Internal ethylene level did not consistently correlate with minimum maturity as judged by agricultural inspection or optimum maturity as judged by a taste panel in either cultivar. Internal ethylene levels ranged from 0 to 26 μl·liter−1 in ‘Delicious’ and 0 to 41 μl·liter−1 in ‘Golden Delicious’ on taste panel harvest dates. Decreases in fruit firmness and increases in starch conversion and soluble solids content were observed prior to any increase in internal ethylene in both ‘Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’. Thus, internal ethylene concentration is not a reliable index of maturity for harvest determination for immediate sale on the fresh market. The combination of fruit firmness decrease, soluble solids increase, and conversion of starch seem to be more closely tied to perception of maturity by both the agricultural inspectors and taste panel.

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