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Susan B. Templeton, Martha Marlette, Kirk W. Pomper, and Snake C. Jones

Marketed as a fresh fruit, the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) has a short shelf life, only 2-3 days at room temperature and up to 3 weeks with refrigeration. There is commercial processing potential for pawpaw pulp in juices, ice cream, yogurt, baked goods, and other products. Consumer acceptability of such products needs to be investigated. One hundred and five attendees of the 2nd Annual Pawpaw Field Day at Kentucky State University (KSU), Frankfort, Ky., participated in a tasting of pawpaw products; 56% of tasters were male; 76% were over 40 years of age; 72% of tasters had eaten pawpaw previously. Each item was rated on a scale from 1 = liked it extremely to 7 = disliked it extremely. Pawpaw ice cream was the best-received item (55% of tasters liked it extremely), followed by pawpaw cake with lemon icing, liked extremely by 45%. The pawpaw/grape juice drink was liked extremely by 31% of participants. Three alternative recipes for pawpaw butter were presented; the plain pawpaw butter was liked extremely by 26% of tasters; pawpaw butter prepared with lemon and grape juice was liked extremely by 11%, while the version prepared with orange and lemon was liked extremely by only 8%. Two versions of pawpaw custard were presented. The custard prepared from ripe, mild-fl avored fruit was liked extremely by 42% of tasters, while the custard prepared from mixed under-ripe, over-ripe and bruised fruit was liked extremely by only 16%. Ratings by persons unfamiliar with pawpaw fl avor were significantly lower (P < 0.05) only for the two pawpaw custards; tasters age 40 years or younger gave significantly higher ratings for pawpaw ice cream (P < 0.05) and significantly lower ratings for both pawpaw custards (select, P < 0.05 and mix, P < 0.01) and the pawpaw/grape juice drink (P < 0.05).

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Chengyan Yue and Cindy Tong

as crispness, juiciness, and tartness, require consumers to eat the products, which is not always easy due to experimental resource constraints. Many studies that allow consumers to taste apples are often conducted in formal tasting facilities

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Guang-Lian Liao, Xiao-Biao Xu, Qing Liu, Min Zhong, Chun-Hui Huang, Dong-Feng Jia, and Xue-Yan Qu

County, Jiangxi is generally less than 16%, and this seriously affects fruit taste and flavor. Dry matter is an important index of fruit quality; it determines the fruit flavor and taste of Actinidia fruit when they are eating ripe ( Burdon et al., 2004

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L. C. Puppybreath III

Carrots cv. `Nantes' were grown on a Rugbee soil type which was treated before planting with 1, 5, and 10 MT/ha of moose manure (MM). Each treatment was replicated five times and compared to the standard practice (SP) of 500 kg/ha 10-10-10 fertilizer. No pesticides were used. Yields were difficult to obtain because of bear vandalism. At harvest 10 kg. samples of each were washed and blended in a food processor. A taste panel of 12 members evaluated a 10 ml. sample in a white paper cup. Each panelist was blindfolded because samples differed in color. 98% of the panel members found the MM carrots to have a distinct taste and preferred them over SP carrots. Two weeks after the test 76% of the panel had a craving for wild oats. Carrots from the treatments were held in underground storage for 5 months. To complete the biology cycle an attempt was made to feed the stored treatment carrots to the moose but they would eat only the SP carrots. For samples of the MM carrots contact Bill Miller, Program Co-Chairman, The first person to respond will receive a certificate for a free meal at the Sizzler on Congress Street.

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Robin G. Brumfield, Adesoji O. Adelaja, and Kimberly Lininger

Face-to-face interviews of produce customers at Kings Super Markets in New Jersey yielded data on consumers' tastes and preferences, quantities purchased, and prices paid for fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Purchase behavior indicated that during the local season, consumers preferred tomatoes grown in New Jersey to tomatoes from other origins. Data were fitted to demand equations to determine the factors affecting demand for fresh tomatoes. Tomato origin significantly influenced consumer purchases. Consumer perceptions of product characteristics such as color, freshness nutrition, and appearance do not appear to significantly influence tomato purchase patterns. However, prices of the) tomatoes or substitutes and income were important determinants of quantity purchased of both New Jersey grown and other tomatoes. New Jersey grown tomatoes were generally perceived to be of superior quality.

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Anne Plotto, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jinhe Bai, John Manthey, Smita Raithore, Sophie Deterre, Wei Zhao, Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Philip A. Stansly, and James A. Tansey

taste sensations induced by nonvolatile or soluble compounds (sugars, acids, and flavonoids) and aromas from the retronasal perception of volatile compounds. Much is known about the orange juice flavor, effect of cultivars, processing techniques, and

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David Wees

`Caruso' tomatoes were grown in a glass greenhouse in Winter and early Spring 1991. All plants were grown in 16-liter nursery pots. Half the plants were grown in a conventional peat-lite medium (Profi-mix) and were fertilized with synthetic water-soluble fertilizer containing micronutrients and (in ppm) 187 N, 46 P, 278 K, 177 Ca, and 48 Mg. The other plants were grown in a potting medium composed of 1 mature compost (chicken manure and leaves): 1 loam: 2 vermiculite (by volume); this medium was amended with 1.5 kg bone meal (2N–10P–0K) and 3 kg dolomitic lime/m3. The “organic” treatment was fertilized with a fish emulsion solution containing (in ppm) 150 N, 13 P, and 25 K. The experiment was repeated in 1992 with `Capello'. In both years, fruit were harvested around the half-ripe to three-quarters ripe stage. All insect control was with insecticidal soap and bio-control agents. A blind taste test was conducted on campus in both years. In 1991, of 70 participants, 73% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 20% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 7% expressed no preference. In 1992, of 105 participants, 67% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 24% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 10% expressed no preference.

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Robert E. Paull, Gail Uruu, and Alton Arakaki

Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corms from 57 vegetatively propagated cultivars were evaluated for yield, physical and chemical characteristics, and either microwaved, microwaved and ground into poi, or fried. Poi color ranged from purple to orange or yellow and the dry matter content from 18.3 to 48%. The taste panel preferred poi made from a number of other cultivars than that made from the most common cultivar `Lehua Maoli' used in Hawaii, and a darker bluish-red poi was preferred. Corm total soluble solids were positively correlated to corm specific gravity and dry matter, and to the taste preference of microwaved corm and poi. The fried cultivars varied widely in yield and corm color varied from cream to white. Additionally, some cultivars did not have purple vascular bundles, and others were acrid after frying. Chip oil content was negatively correlated to corm weight, dry weight, and chip yield. The `Bin Liang' cultivar was judged the best overall in fried chip taste. Considerable variation in corm yield and quality characteristics existed in this widely cultivated vegetatively propagated tropical crop.

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Danielle Williams, Teddy Morelock, and Eddy Stiles

There are four southernpea breeding programs left in the United States: USDA-South Carolina, Louisiana, Texas and the largest at University of Arkansas. Selected breeding lines from these programs are grown in the Southernpea Cooperative Trial along with industry standards as checks. The yield trial is conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas. Each location collects yield data; at the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville samples are also canned at the Department of Food Science Pilot Plant Facility. The process we use for canning southernpeas is similar to that used in the industry. Dry weights are recorded then soaked overnight in water. Imbibed weights are recorded after the peas are drained, blanched, and cooled. A weighed amount of peas are placed in each can; prepared brine (water, salt, and preservatives) is poured to the top of the can. The cans are sealed then cooked in a retort. The cans set a month before the tasting evaluation. For the tasting evaluation we use a minimum of 10 individuals for a consumer panel. Panelists rate pea color, liquor color, wholeness, texture, flavor, and the general appearance on a scale of 1–10, 10 being best. The industry standards are included, these are used as checks. This allows breeders to see how their lines look and taste as a canned product.

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Esteban Herrera

Pecan growers are interested in harvesting pecans early because of better prices available early in' the harvest season. Random samples from previously tagged nuts were taken each week for 7 weeks in 1985, and for 8 weeks in 1986. A 50-nut sample was weekly harvested for each of the following treatments: 1) fresh sample, 2) oven-dried for 24 hours at 29.4°C 3) oven-dried for 24 hours at 35°C, 4) oven-dried for 30 hours at 29.4°C, 5) oven-dried for 30 hours at 35°C, 6) dried at room temperature for 72 hours and 7) the control. At the start of the experiment, kernel moisture was about 14%. Some treatments brought kernel moisture below 5% the first week of the experiment. Drying nuts at room temperature reduced kernel moisture as effectively as other treatments. Kernel taste was evaluated after 3 months of cold storage. Judging by taste and moisture content, most treatments could have been harvested 4 weeks before normal harvest in 1985 and 5 weeks before in 1986. It seems that pecans can be harvested early and artificially dried, beginning around 4 weeks before normal harvest, without affecting quality.