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Suzette P. Galinato, Aidan Kendall, and Carol A. Miles

evaluating the economic feasibility of two orchard production systems common in commercial cider apple orchards in Washington State, freestanding and tall spindle trellis, and we estimate the costs for harvest mechanization (both systems) and mechanical

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Jaume Lordan, Anna Wallis, Poliana Francescatto, and Terence L. Robinson

), cumulative crop load (fruit number/cm 2 TCA), and biennial bearing index for each combination of training system (Central Leader—CL, SolAxe—SA, Slender Pyramid—SP, Tall Spindle—TS, and Vertical Axis—VA) and rootstock (‘M.M.111’, ‘B.9’, ‘G.16’, ‘M.9’, ‘G.30

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Gemma Reig, Jaume Lordan, Stephen Hoying, Michael Fargione, Daniel J. Donahue, Poliana Francescatto, Dana Acimovic, Gennaro Fazio, and Terence Robinson

/tree) of ‘Delicious’ apple trees on 10 rootstocks and trained to four systems ( A , super spindle; B , tall spindle; C , triple axis spindle; D , vertical axis) over 11 years in Hudson, NY. Vertical bars indicate least significant difference test ( P

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Jaume Lordan, Anna Wallis, Poliana Francescatto, and Terence L. Robinson

6. Gross income ($/ha) for each combination of training system (Central Leader—CL, SolAxe—SA, Slender Pyramid—SP, Tall Spindle—TS, and Vertical Axis—VA) and rootstock (‘M.M.111’, ‘B.9’, ‘G.16’, ‘M.9’, ‘G.30’, and ‘M.26’) for ‘Honeycrisp’ at Peru

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James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, Thomas M. Kon, Richard P. Marini, Tara A. Baugher, Lynn F. Kime, and Melanie A. Schupp

be removed at some point, with large limbs preferentially removed, and the central leader left as the only permanent part of the canopy. The productivity and simplicity of the tall spindle system has led to wide acceptance ( Robinson et al., 2006

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Cheryl R. Hampson, Harvey A. Quamme, Frank Kappel, and Robert T. Brownlee

The effect of increasing planting density at constant rectangularity on the vegetative growth and light interception of apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees in three training systems (slender spindle, tall spindle, and Geneva Y trellis) was assessed for 10 years. Five tree densities (from 1125 to 3226 trees/ha) and two cultivars (Royal Gala and Summerland McIntosh) were tested in a fully guarded split-split plot design. Planting density was the most influential factor. As tree density increased, tree size decreased, and leaf area index and light interception increased. A planting density between 1800 and 2200 trees/ha (depending on training system) was needed to achieve at least 50% light interception under the conditions of this trial. Training system altered tree height and canopy diameter, but not total scion weight. Training system began to influence light interception in the sixth leaf, when the Y trellis system intercepted more light than either spindle form. Trees trained to the Y trellis tended to have more spurs and a lower proportion of total leaf area in shoot leaves than the other two systems. The slender and tall spindles were similar in most aspects of performance. Tall spindles did not intercept more light than slender spindles. `Royal Gala' and `Summerland McIntosh' trees intercepted about the same amount of light. `Royal Gala' had greater spur leaf area per tree than `Summerland McIntosh', but the cultivars were similar in shoot leaf area per tree and spur density.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi

-leader, vertical-axis, and tall-spindle apple orchard systems on three different rootstocks Fruit Notes 76 10 13 Davie, S.J. Stassen, P.J.C. van der Walt, M. Snijder, B. 1995 Girdling avocado trees for improved production S. Afr. Avocado Growers’ Assoc. Yearbook

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Terence L. Robinson, Alison M. DeMarree, and Stephen A. Hoying

We performed an economic analysis of five orchard production systems [Slender Pyramid/M.26 (840 trees/ha), Vertical Axis/M.9 (1538 trees/ha), Slender Axis/M.9 (2244 trees/ha), Tall Spindle/M.9 (3312 trees/ha), and Super Spindle (5382 trees/ha)] using composite yield and labor usage data from several replicated research plots in New York state. Other costs and fruit returns were averages from a group of commercial fruit farms in New York state. The systems varied in costs of establishment from a low of $18,431/ha for the Slender Pyramid system to high of $47,524/ha for the Super Spindle system. The large differences in establishment costs were largely related to tree density. All of the systems had a positive internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) after 20 years. They ranged from a low of 7.5% IRR for the Slender Pyramid system to a high of 11.1% IRR for the Slender Axis system. Profitability, as measured by NPV, was curvilinearly related to tree density with intermediate densities giving greater profitability than the highest densities. The optimum density was 2600 trees/ha when NPV was calculated per hectare, but only 2200 trees/ha when NPV was calculated per $10,000 invested. The earliest break-even year was 10 for the Slender Axis and Tall Spindle systems. The latest break-even year was 13 for the Slender Pyramid. An estimate of the number of hectares required to produce a $100,000 annual profit to the business was 222 for the slender pyramid system and 84–104 ha of the three best systems (Super Spindle, Tall Spindle, and Slender Axis). The analysis revealed that efforts to control establishment costs of land, trees and support system can substantially increase lifetime profits.

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Cheryl R. Hampson, Harvey A. Quamme, Frank Kappel, and Robert T. Brownlee

The effect of increasing planting density at constant rectangularity on the fruit yield, fruit size, and fruit color of apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] in three training systems (slender spindle, tall spindle, and Geneva Y trellis) was assessed for 10 years. Five tree densities (from 1125 to 3226 trees/ha) and two cultivars (Royal Gala and Summerland McIntosh) were tested in a fully guarded split-split plot design. Density was the most influential factor. As tree density increased, per-tree yield decreased, but yield per unit area increased. The relation between cumulative yield per ha and tree density was linear at the outset of the trial, but soon became curvilinear, as incremental yield diminished with increasing tree density. The chief advantage of high density planting was a large increase in early fruit yield. In later years, reductions in cumulative yield efficiency, and in fruit color for `Summerland McIntosh', began to appear at the highest density. Training system had no influence on productivity for the first 5 years. During the second half of the trial, fruit yield per tree was greater for the Y trellis than for either spindle form at lower densities but not at higher densities. The slender and tall spindles were similar in nearly all aspects of performance, including yield. `Summerland McIntosh' yielded almost 40% less than `Royal Gala' and seemed more sensitive to the adverse effects of high tree density on fruit color.

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Stefano Musacchi, Federico Gagliardi, and Sara Serra

principal training systems are vase, palmette, and Drapeau Marchand ( Savini et al., 2007 ). For medium–high density, the spindle system, with various modifications (Zahn, Vogel, and Modified Brunner spindle) ( Hrotkó, 2005 ; Hrotkó et al., 1997 ; Long