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Abbreviations: ALC, automatic luminescence control; CCD, charged coupled device; ICAS, interactive Image Capture and Analysis System; NIR, near infrared; VCR, video cassette recorder. Contribution no: 8022, Scientific

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positioned with no overlapping roots to allow for more uniform scanning. Scans were done in gray scale at 800 dots per inch to increase resolution of fine roots. Each image was analyzed using an image analysis system (WinRHIZO™ version 2012b; Regent

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visual and plant analysis guide to fertilization. Univ. California Bul. 4098 Walworth, J.L. Sumner, M.E. 1987 The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) Adv. Soil Sci. 6 149 188 10.1007/978-1-4612-4682-4_4 Westerveld, S.M. McKeown, A

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: Limitations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement Agr. Econ. 34 207 219 Engindeniz, S. 2004 Economic analysis of growing greenhouse cucumber with soilless culture systems: The case of Turkey J. Sustain. Agr. 23 5

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for amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) primer design to authenticate D. tosaense . Sequence analysis and phylogenetic tree construction. The ITS DNA sequences of Dendrobium species were aligned and compared using the Clustal X program

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Abstract

Superimposed Amplified Exotherm Differential Thermal Analysis System is presented as a system used for detecting low-temperature exotherms of excised dormant flower buds. This system uses thermistors that do not penetrate the tissue and a liquid freezing medium for more uniform temperatures between the sample and reference. A test chamber is presented that can be used with a nonprogrammable freezer. Tests with Forsythia flower buds indicate 2 exotherms, the second of which is associated with a dramatic loss of tissue viability.

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Effective management of site variability has been shown to improve efficiency of chemical use, enhance of fruit quality, optimize irrigations and increase profits. Techniques for localizing and quantifying spatial variation through computer analysis of aerial imagery exist, but the detailed knowledge of soils, site history, and nutrition required for effective management of the variation often are not available in a readily accessible or timely fashion. As a consequence, the benefits of site-specific management have not been fully realized by horticultural managers. These limitations have been partially overcome by developing an information management system which integrates image analysis functions to identify crop stress, a geographic information system to relate stresses to resident and nonresident site factors, and custom spreadsheets that provide a cost/benefit analysis of various management decisions. The system allows a manager to visualize the probable impact of an intervention on variability, yield, and profits in a timely manner.

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A simple packaging system was developed to simultaneously measure volatile production by plant organs and the permeability of the packaging film to those volatiles. In this system, apple (Malus domestica Borkk cv Golden Delicious) was packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag and placed into a glass jar with a low air flow. The package and jar head spaces were sampled for aroma volatile analysis by gas chromatograph. Analysis was by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This system allowed at least 10 volatile compounds and their permeabilities to be measured. This system permits volatile production to be measured for products in the package so the product need not be removed from its storage environment. This may be a useful method for determining the dynamic relationship between flavor volatile synthesis and package atmosphere for packaged produce.

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A computerized system capable of controlling the freezing rate and collecting, storing, and analyzing data from multiple samples to determine their freezing point using low-temperature exotherm analysis is described. Details include electrical diagrams of modifications to the multiplexer/amplifier interface to provide additional signal amplification and permit control of the freezer's compressor. Computer software is described that permits variable temperature decline rates. Data analysis consists of a program in “C” that sequentially compares each data point in a low-temperature exotherm profile. Low-temperature exotherms are identified by a user-specified minimum differential between sequential data points. Examples of exotherm output and data analysis are given.

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There has been an explosion of interest in the development of computer-based Decision Support Systems (DSS) in agriculture. Humans factor, which is the design and evaluation of a system to optimize human and total system performance, offer tools to improve the usefulness of DSS. Task analysis, a formal human factors approach to study human-machine interaction, identifies all of the physical and psychological tasks which must be completed by either the human or the machine in order to meet the various system performance requirements and constraints. Our study focuses on the tasks associated with mid-winter stone fruit freeze protection. Using this technique we have identified work load and output requirements of current critical temperature estimation procedures, additional information needed to improve critical temperature estimates and training needs of fruit industry personnel making critical temperature determinations. This information will be used to produce a requirements specification for a freeze protection DSS.

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