The relationship between the objective assessment of analytical measures of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit quality and the corresponding sensory panel rating was studied. The optimum size, based on average fruit weight, for sweet cherries was 11 to 12 g. A nine-row or 29- to 30-mm-diameter sweet cherry would be the equivalent industry standard. When two separate panels were conducted with overlapping samples, panelists had similar results for optimum fruit size. The optimum color is represented by the #6 color chip of the prototype of the Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes (CTIFL) scale (#5 in new commercial CTIFL chart). A fruit firmness between 70 and 75 using a Shore Instrument durometer was considered optimum. Minimum soluble solids concentration (SSC) for sweet cherries was between 17% and 19% and optimum pH of the juice was 3.8. The optimum sweet–sour balance was between 1.5 and 2 (SSC/ml NaOH).
Frank Kappel, Bob Fisher-Fleming, and Eugene Hogue
Murray Clayton, William V. Biasi, I. Tayfun Agar, Stephen M. Southwick, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
`Bing' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees were treated with hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2) or calcium ammonium nitrate (CaNH4NO3) during dormancy, or gibberellic acid (GA3) 26 days before harvest during three consecutive years. Fruit were evaluated at harvest for sensory taste quality using twenty trained panelists sampling for firmness, sweetness, tartness, and cherry flavor. Nondestructive instrumental firmness preceded destructive sensory firmness on the same untreated and GA3-treated cherries in one year when used as a supplementary evaluation. Sensory firmness was consistently higher in GA3 fruit and to a lesser extent in CH2N2 fruit than in CaNH4NO3 and untreated fruit. Instrumental firmness of GA3 fruit did not increase significantly compared with untreated fruit yet instrumental firmness of each treatment correlated relatively well with perceived sensory firmness. Sensory sweetness and cherry flavor scored very similarly, yet both attributes simultaneously varied between treatments across the years. Perceived sensory tartness of treated fruit was variable among years; yet, on average, was rated among treated and untreated fruit as similar. Under the assumption that elevated sensory firmness, sweetness, and cherry flavor intensity reflects improved sweet cherry quality, GA3 fruit were rated of higher quality than untreated fruit given their increased firmness and similar or occasionally elevated sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. CH2N2 fruit maintained quality similar to that of untreated fruit, despite often having marginally higher firmness, due to similar or reduced ratings for sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. Notwithstanding similar firmness between CaNH4NO3 and untreated cherries, sensory quality of CaNH4NO3-treated cherries was reduced due to their often-diminished levels of perceived sweetness and cherry flavor.
Wesley Gartner, Paul C. Bethke, Theodore J. Kisha, and James Nienhuis
quality of many vegetables is often inversely related to size and maturity, especially those in which the vegetable is an immature seed or fruit. Examples include snap beans, peas, sweet corn, and cucumbers. In general, smaller, immature tissues command
Kaoru Nakamura, Hirotoshi Hino, Sadao Gunji, Norio Hattanda, Toshio Murata, Hiroshi Tominaga, Koichi Fukumoto, and Ryo Akashi
The sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) was discovered in Sicily in 1695 ( Rice, 2002 ). Many cultivars have been bred in England and the United States since its introduction in England. Sweet pea cultivation is popular not only in the United
F. Kappel, P. Toivonen, D.-L. McKenzie, and S. Stan
Research Commission, Oregon Sweet Cherry Commission, and the Matching Investment Initiative program of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada is greatly appreciated.
Moritz Knoche, Eckhard Grimm, and Henrik Jürgen Schlegel
Rain-induced cracking severely limits production of many soft-textured, drupe, and berry fruits. Sweet cherry is a prominent example of the former ( Christensen, 1996 ). Cracking is commonly assumed to result from increased fruit turgor, caused by
Marlene Ayala and Gregory Lang
; Teng et al., 2001 , 2002 ; Wünsche et al., 2005 ). In sweet cherry, reproductive and vegetative growth occurs simultaneously during spring and early summer ( Roper et al., 1987 ). FS and NFS leaf area (LA) is derived from preformed vegetative
values for vegetable crops such as sweet corn. To be relevant, the nutrient removal values must be based on current cultural practices and production technology. Although production guides often publish values for crop nutrient removal, the original
Thomas M. Butzler, Elsa S. Sánchez, Steven M. Bogash, Timothy E. Elkner, William J. Lamont Jr., Robert Pollock, and Lee J. Stivers
As of 2012, Pennsylvania was ranked 10th in the United State for fresh market sweet corn production. Forty-eight percent (1898 farms) of Pennsylvania growers produce sweet corn on 12,715 acres [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014 ]. Growers
Darren E. Robinson, Nader Soltani, Christy Shropshire, and Peter H. Sikkema
Sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) production is important to the economy of Ontario where nearly 113,000 t of sweet corn are produced on nearly 10,000 ha annually [ Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), 2013 ]. In 2012, sweet