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sustained increase in global cocoa consumption ( Lass, 2004 ; Rice and Greenberg, 2000 ), has led to a worldwide push for the intensification of cacao cultivation ( Bisseleua et al., 2009 ; Deheuvels et al., 2014 ). The intensification of cacao production

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Commercial sources of biotechnology have enormously outweighted non-market sources (e.g. the International Agricultural Research Center) Thus it is most obvious that growing R&D costs and intensified internationa technology competition have financially disabled developing countries from access to the new technology. Furthermore, biotechnology is a typica interdisciplinary subject based on many different principles of newly developed life sciences such as biochemistry, physiology, microbiology and molecular biology, which limits number of personnel in developing countries who are capable of incorporating the new technological inovation o developed countries into their agricultural production system. The protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) of which private firms in developed countries have intensified put another limiting factor in the international flow of biotechnology. Financial aid, technical assistance for personnel training and execution of self-restrained IPRs towards developing countries wil enable developed countries widen the potential market and contribute to sustainable development in the Third World.

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. Clarifying the title question: Can we produce organic or conventional vegetables sustainably without cover crops? Before answering the complex title question, let me clarify it. First, I am referring to winter cover crops like cereal rye ( Secale cereale

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As competition for water resources in areas of western North America intensify as a result of increasing human populations, the sustainability of turfgrass irrigation with limited water resources is questionable. A potential part of the solution is the use of recycled wastewater for landscape irrigation. However, as a result of high levels of salt, successful irrigation with recycled wastewater will likely need to be coupled with selection for increased salinity tolerance in turfgrass species. Additionally, salinity-tolerant turfgrass will allow production on soils with inherently high salt levels. The study described here characterized the relative salinity tolerance of 93 accessions of Poa germplasm from the USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). Control cultivars of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) were also evaluated for comparison. Kentucky bluegrass accessions exhibited a wide range of LD50 (salinity dosage necessary to kill 50% of plants) values from 811 ECdays (PI 369296 from Russia) to 1922 ECdays (PI 371768 from the United States). Five kentucky bluegrass accessions exhibited salinity tolerance equal to or better than that of the tall fescue (LD50 = 1815 ECdays) and perennial ryegrass (LD50 = 1754 ECdays) checks. Thus, there is sufficient variation within this species to develop bluegrass with substantially higher salinity tolerance.

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To decrease the unfavorable effects of herbicides on human health and on the environment, new sustainable mulching methods have been developed. These methods aim to impede weed growth and also result in good yield and high fruit quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the replacement of conventional methods (chemical treatments or mechanical) with different groundcover material systems (GCMSs) that use aluminum, bark and black polypropylene on 'Aroma' apple (Malus domestica) fruit maturity and quality, and fruit resistance to bruising and decay. The experiment was carried out from 1995 to 2001. Compared with conventional mulching methods, aluminum mulching was found to control annual weeds more effectively, to increase soil temperature, light reflection, yield, and fruit weight, to decrease bruise occurrence, to intensify and saturate the red coloration of apples, and to increase firmness and acid and sugar contents, resistance to storage disorders and decay after storage and shelf life. The other two used GCMSs, bark and black polypropylene also influenced many yield and quality parameters. However, less positive influences on the different parameters were found for bark compared with aluminum, and the use of black propylene was not favorable compared with the conventional mulching methods. Generally, decreased starch content at early picking dates was found for apples grown with GCMSs, indicating an earlier ripening for these apples compared with apples grown with a conventional mulching system. In summary, aluminum mulching was found to be the best alternative mulching method for production of 'Aroma' apples.

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and choosing sustainable alternatives intensifies the issue of invasive plant spread in Florida, USA ( Wilson and Deng 2023 ). The “Plant This Not That: A Guide to Avoiding Invasive Plant Species in Florida” extension booklet ( McIntyre et al. 2021

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intensified demands for greater involvement of design and horticulture schools in teaching and research related to sustainability. Degree and certificate programs focused on sustainability are beginning to emerge at a number of design and horticulture schools

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With the development of modern agriculture and industry, crop production has become highly mechanized and intensified. Changes in equipment and farm inputs as a result of technological developments have promoted the cultivation of high-yielding crop

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Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are playing an ever growing role on world food security and economic development. As an integral component of agricultural biodiversity, these resources are crucial to the intensification of

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regions such as central Myanmar ( FAO, 2010 ). The country’s reasonably good water resources, if managed properly, should be supportive of sustainable horticultural production. Furthermore, much of the country is frost free. With changes in global climate

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