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within zones 7 and 8 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Hardiness Zone Map. Survey questionnaires were e-mailed to 344 SNA members in the southeastern region on 15 June 2007. There are approximately 1800 members of SNA (although many

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a result “environmental consciousness” was included as a response choice in this study. Methods and materials A traditional postal mailing to randomly selected single-family residences in the metro-Philadelphia area was used for survey distribution

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a 5-point Likert-type scale ( Likert, 1932 ) for which respondents specified their level of agreement with a statement. On 28 Feb. 2006, questionnaires were mailed to all 116 past participants (1998–2005) in Hort 496. On 11 Mar. 2006 a reminder

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, the effective population had over 104,000 firms. A total of 32,000 firms were targeted for the survey, including 15,000 grower or grower/dealer firms randomly selected to receive the questionnaire mailed via the U.S. Postal Service, and all 17

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and received e-mails with information regarding the incentive for participation and instructions on accessing an on-line survey. According to Dillman (2007) , sampling 351 people is sufficient for a population of 4000 people, and it is not necessary

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Questionnaires on pesticide use and other aspects of integrated pest management (IPM) were mailed to 1678 lawn care and landscape maintenance firms in the 20 county metropolitan Atlanta area. The survey return rate adjusted for nonapplicable addresses and undeliverable mailings was 25.4%, yielding a total of 350 usable surveys. Responding lawn care and landscape maintenance professionals purchased a total active ingredient of 250,527 lb (93,447 kg) of herbicide, 35,416 lb (13,210 kg) of insecticide and 10,367 lb (3,867 kg) of fungicide during 1993. Most insecticides and fungicides were applied during June, July, and August. About one-third of herbicides were applied during March to May, one-third during June to August, and one-third during September to February. Key pests and plants were identified by survey respondents. Opportunities and impediments to implementation of IPM in the landscape as reported by respondents are discussed.

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In 2004, the greenhouse and nursery industry was ranked as the fourth largest crop group in the United States based on farm cash receipts (USDA, 2004). The ornamental crop sector was expected to post total sales in excess of 15.3 billion dollars in 2004 (USDA, 2004). Landscape services within the green industry have risen from 28.9 billion in 2002 to 41.6 billion in 2004 (ALCA, 2004). In Iowa, recent surveys of turfgrass and edible food crop production and services have shown a combined net worth of more than 1 billion dollars. However, these surveys failed to include nursery and garden centers, greenhouse growers, landscape designers/contractors, arborists, and florists. Therefore, the objective of this project was to better understand the scope and scale of the ornamental horticulture industry in Iowa. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 1293 horticulture businesses in Iowa. The survey instrument was developed with input from members of the Iowa Nursery and Landscape Association Research Corporation. Before mailing, it was reviewed by survey professionals and piloted to a select group of green industry representatives and edited per their suggestions. Three weeks after mailing, a reminder postcard was sent. Respondents were sorted as to type and size of business, number of employees, and annual sales. The percentage of gross receipts was categorized by types of plants sold and services provided. Respondents also were asked about the factors that limit their success, their strengths compared to competitors, and their expectations for future growth.

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Management problems and information needs of Florida's approximately 12,000 citrus growers on 791,290 acres were identified by a statewide citrus management survey. During the summer of 1992, citrus county agents' mailing lists were compiled to create a master list of 2,964 addresses, from which a sample of 833 growers was selected by a stratified proportional sampling procedure. Three hundred ninety-eight useable questionnaires were returned from commercial citrus grove owners and managers in 23 citrus producing counties, representing 307,022 acres, 39% of the current acreage. Survey data on general management, young tree care, pest management, water management and cold protection was further analyzed by whether respondents' groves were bedded or unbedded. Information from this citrus survey and previous ones has been used to develop and evaluate comprehensive statewide citrus extension programs.

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A survey was conducted to identify and characterize the effectiveness of overwintering methods used to protect container-grown herbaceous perennials in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8. Survey questionnaires were sent by first-class mail on 20 Aug. 1996 to 634 firms involved in growing and/or selling container-grown herbaceous perennials identified from the Perennial Plant Association Membership Directory. Completed questionnaires were received from 293 individuals (46.2% response rate) in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and six Canadian provinces. Survey participants reported using several overwintering methods: structureless systems (71.0%), polyhouses (52.9%), polyhouses with inflated double polyethylene covers (30.7%), and low-profile polyhuts (12.3%). Over three-fourths of the respondents (78.8%) said their winter protection methods resulted in minimal to no plant loss (0-10%). Only 53 respondents (18.1%) reported losses >10%. The most frequently cited reason for plant loss across all hardiness zones was excessive moisture inside the overwintering environment (50.2%). Equal percentages (33.4%) indicated low temperatures and damage from animals as the next most likely factors responsible for plant loss. Respondents identified, in descending order, Iris, Delphinium, Lavandula, Papaver, and Lupinus as the five genera most difficult to overwinter.

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There are indications that the U.S. herbaceous perennial plant industry has grown substantially in the last decade. Government census data on perennials is sparse, very general, and collected infrequently. The objective of this research was to define characteristics of the herbaceous perennial plant industry. Questionnaires were sent to members of the Perennial Plant Association in 1990. We requested that the person who made decisions on a daily basis, the owner or active manager, respond. Of 439 surveys distributed, 147 were returned for a 33.5% response rate. The average owner or active manager had a high education level (16 years) which was combined with management experience in at least one other company. Firms sold a mean of 30 genera of perennials. Firms selling primarily perennials were younger and more likely to have less total sales than firms selling primarily other plant products. Firms marketing primarily perennials were more likely to sell products by mail and offer a wider selection of genera.

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