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The University of Tennessee developed a flowering dogwood tree (Cornus florida) that is resistant to powdery mildew (Microspaera pulchra). A simulated cooperative game was created to estimate a university fee and predict the behavior of nursery growers and nursery product retailers. The simulation suggests a university fee of $3.51, leading to an average retail price premium for the resistant tree of $10.41. At this price level the simulation predicts that 62 percent of all retail dogwood trees sold would be powdery mildew resistant. Based on 1998 sales of 1.475 million dogwood trees nationwide, 914,500 were predicted to be the powdery mildew resistant varieties, resulting in $3.2 million in revenue for the university. Given this level of sales and markup pricing, the cost of the trees will rise in subsequent stages of the distribution channel, and revenues will increase as well. The simulation suggests nursery revenue will increase by nearly $4 million and costs by $3.2 million, resulting in a net nursery gain of $0.8 million. Similar computations for the retail level are $9.5 million in revenue and a net increase of $5.5 million.

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market acceptance provide advantages to all parties in the supply chain with products that are more desirable, available, affordable, healthful, and safer. However, breeding programs in rosaceous crops face numerous constraints. Development, evaluation

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factors, including harvest timing, cold chain management, time to market, modified atmospheres (MAs), and shipping and handling practices throughout the supply chain ( Beckles, 2012 ; Brecht et al., 2003 ; Cantwell et al., 2009 ; Toivonen, 2007

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market demands, producers require development and commercialization of superior new cultivars. New cherry cultivars with improved performance benefit producers directly. However, other members of the supply chain benefit from new cultivars with improved

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categories. Higher-income households reported purchasing most fresh fruits at club stores rather than chain stores ( P < 0.1 ) . This outcome suggested that club store managers may benefit from supplying a wider diversity of fresh fruit because high

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, reproducibility, standardization, toxicity, and protection of actives must be addressed. Additionally, sustainability of the supply chain is an important issue, not only to assure a continuous supply of raw material, but to be sure the supply chain is not harming

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., 2009 ; Luby and Shaw, 2001 ). Determining trait valuation is difficult, and only a few horticultural studies have evaluated trait priorities of the entire supply chain starting from breeders and ending with consumers ( Zimmerman and Van der Lans, 2009

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( Barritt, 1999 ). Apple breeding programs’ impact on stakeholders could be enhanced through the development of cultivars improved for the traits of most value to all members of the supply chain (producers, market intermediaries, and consumers). This study

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by 485 farms. Recent hypothetical modeling suggests that a 30% increase in broccoli acreage in the eastern United States, including the mid-Atlantic region, has the potential to reduce transportation within the broccoli supply chain by up to $5

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on genetic traits of maximum value ( Alpuerto et al., 2009 ; Gallardo et al., 2012 ; Luby and Shaw, 2001 ; Yue et al., 2012 ). Determining trait priorities is difficult because trait relevance depends on what sector of the supply chain is involved

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