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Jyotsna Joshi, Geng Zhang, Shanqi Shen, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana, Chihiro K.A. Watanabe, and Wataru Yamori

outer leaves senesce fast and appear yellow ( McCabe et al., 2001 ), resulting in large reductions in plant yield at the time of shipment. A recent study indicated that supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plants could delay the senescence of

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

yield and quality of vegetables can be achieved only by using supplemental lighting ( Dorais et al., 1991 ; McAvoy and Janes, 1984 ; Rodriguez and Lambeth, 1975 ; Tibbitts et al., 1987 ). However, the use of supplemental lighting represents an expense

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Celina Gómez and Cary A. Mitchell

depend on the intended transplant use, because morphological preferences for scions, rootstocks, or non-grafted production seedlings are different ( Chia and Kubota, 2010 ). Supplemental lighting promotes growth of greenhouse-grown vegetable seedlings by

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Paul Deram, Mark G. Lefsrud, and Valérie Orsat

latitudes must compensate for the attenuation in total light availability (from prolonged winter with short daylight hours), and supplemental artificial lighting is required to maintain a consistent crop yield throughout the Canadian winters. Conventional

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Allison Hurt, Roberto G. Lopez, and Joshua K. Craver

supplemental and photoperiodic lighting sources logged every hour by a data logger (model CR1000; Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). Data were collected under continuous supplemental lighting with a 16-h photoperiod provided by high-pressure sodium (HPS_70) or

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Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel

February ( Korczynski et al., 2002 ). Supplemental lighting is often needed to produce high-quality crops in controlled-environment agriculture but can substantially increase production costs. For example, van Iersel and Gianino (2017) estimated that the

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Marc W. van Iersel and David Gianino

providing supplemental lighting. These lights are expensive to use. Combining the ballast and bulb, a single 400-W HPS light consumes ≈465 W of electrical energy ( Nelson, 2003 ). To provide supplemental light at a PPF of ≈85 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 requires

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

259 268 Hoover, W.H. 1937 The dependence of carbon dioxide assimilation in a higher plant on wave length of radiation Smithson. Misc. Collect. 95 21 564 569 Hurt, A. Lopez, R.G. Craver, J.K. 2019 Supplemental but not photoperiodic lighting increased

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Ricardo Hernández and Chieri Kubota

Light is one of the limiting factors for plant growth. To increase the PPF for plant growth, greenhouse growers must supplement solar light with electric-powered light. The most common lighting technology used to increase PPF in the greenhouse

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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

Supplemental lighting can improve the profitability of greenhouse crop production, and a better quantitative understanding of plant responses to PPFD can facilitate the development of more efficient crop-specific control strategies for greenhouse