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Grapefruit seeds were studied for the extraction of limonoids using supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2) technique. Limonin aglycone was successfully extracted with SC-CO2 directly from grapefruit seeds; and the limonin glycoside was extracted using SC-CO2 and ethanol as co-solvent from the spent seeds after the extraction of limonin aglycone. In an effort to optimize the extraction conditions of limonin aglycone, pressure, temperature, time effects were investigated. Various times of extraction, CO2 flow rate and the feeding modes of CO2 were also employed to obtain the highest yield of limonin aglycone. Optimal conditions to achieve the highest limonin aglycone (0.63 mg/g seeds) were 48.3 MPa, 50°C and 60 min with CO2 bottom feeding, flow rate about 5 L/min. The extraction conditions for limonin glycoside to achieve highest yield were further optimized. The highest extraction yield (0.62 mg limonin glycoside/g seeds) were at 48.3 MPa, 50°C, 30% molar fraction of ethanol (XEth =0.30) and 40 min with CO2 top feeding, flow rate about 5 L/min. The results demonstrated that supercritical CO2 extraction of limonoids from grapefruit seeds, a citrus juice industry byproduct, has practical significance for commercial production.

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Partial oil extraction is being investigated as a means to increase oxidative stability and provide reduced fat pecan halves. Supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide provided a means to extract twenty to thirty percent of resident oil, with little to no kernel damage and leaving no harmful residues in the kernel or the extracted oil. Variances in extraction time, temperature, pressure and total carbon dioxide volume used for extraction with a continuous flow extractor will be discussed. Fatty acid composition of oils extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was essentially the same as oils obtained by solvent extraction and by cold press. Fatty acid yield in the oils was greater for supercritical extraction compared to the other two methods. Oxidative stability for extracted and unextracted pecans, determined using an accelerated aging technique, will be compared. Supported by USDA grant 92-34150-7190 and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.

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developed to replace the use of hexane as a solvent for oleoresin production, this would improve the environmental risks for the isolation of red pigments from Capsicum fruit. Supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) using CO 2 as the solvent is one such

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020140220607252029036.pdf >. Cothran, J.R. 2004 Treasured ornamentals of southern gardens: Michaux’s lasting legacy Castanea 69 sp2 149 157 Demirbas, A. 2009 Oil from tea seed by supercritical fluid extraction Energy Source Part A 31 217 222 Demirbas, A. 2010a Tea seed

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combined action of compounds such as esters, alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, ketones, and terpenes ( Hayaloglu and Demir 2015 ). Extraction/separation techniques of aroma components include simultaneous distillation extraction, supercritical fluid

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.D. 2005 Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70

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through steam distillation ( Kula et al., 2007 ; Topalov, 1962 ), although other extraction methods such as hydrodistillation, CO 2 extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction have been reported ( Gaspar and Leeke, 2004 ; Karakaya et al., 2011

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). The extraction of seed oil was performed on a supercritical CO 2 extraction apparatus (SFE-2 model; Applied Separations, Allentown, PA). Samples (10 g) of grounded peony kernel were placed into the extraction vessel. The extraction conditions were as

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colorant on citrus fruit. Literature Cited Anderson, S.G. Nair, M.G. Chandra, A. Morrison, E. 1997 Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction of annatto seeds and quantification of trans-bixin by high pressure liquid chromatography Phytochem. Anal. 8 247

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the end of the growing season (November). Plant extractions and analyses. The conditions for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were essentially as described by Medina et al. (2005

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