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sawdust peat-based substrates, irrigation strategies (dripper distribution and number, absence of surface evaporation, volume of leaching) played a key role in the salt build-up process and in subsequent leaching. Substrate irrigation management. Because

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periodically adjusting irrigation volume based on plant or substrate visual appearance ( van Iersel et al., 2013 ). Overhead irrigation generally has an application efficiency (amount of water retained in the container/total water applied) of about 25% to 37

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locations throughout the container. Fig. 3. Example of how substrate matric potential at the time when irrigation began (ψ o ) and wetting front (WF) arrival are determined. ψ o is based on the first ψ measurement (i.e., time = 0 s). WF arrival is

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be due to the smaller pore sizes found in peat-based substrates compared with pine bark–based substrates. The wet treatment also had a 23% increase in the number of irrigation events during the 51 d of irrigation treatments compared with the dry

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.A. 1989 Hydrology of horticultural substrates: II. Predicting physical properties of substrate in containers J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 114 53 56 Million, J.B. Yeager, T.H. 2015 CIRRIG: Weather-based irrigation management program for container

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; Per = perlite; C = compost; and Z = zeolite in volumetric proportions that are indicated by their subscripts and commercial based on crushed tiles), substrate depth (7.5 or 15 cm), and irrigation regime (3 mm or 6 mm) during the moisture deficit

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, where all crop roots had significantly greater root biomass in the lower container portion than upper portions except for nonstratified-grown crops under regular irrigation. Although not measured directly, roots growing in peat-based substrates may have

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. Irrigation for plants growing in #2 containers was determined based on the container capacity (CC) of the individual substrates. During the first year of the study, the amount of available water was established in a preliminary experiment using tomato

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species in extensive green roofs is appropriate under certain conditions of irrigation, substrate depth, and nutrient levels. Based on all of these factors, it is obvious that research must be undertaken for each region to select primarily native and

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high-quality plants, conserving both water and fertilizer. Capacitance substrate moisture sensors have been successfully used to monitor and control drip irrigation based on target θ thresholds for containerized plants grown in greenhouses ( Burnett and

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