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Fe source on substrate and leachate runoff chemistry during the production of marigold were determined. Therefore, objectives of the study were to assess the performance of FeEDDS in comparison with Fe chelates (FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA) and with a non

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containing 0.2 mL·L −1 (200 ppm) surfactant and three successive wetting cycles. z Although surfactant chemistry class affects wettability of bark substrates ( Airhart et al., 1980 ), it remains unclear as to specific reasons for increased efficacy of APE

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growing media Acta Hort. 1013 231 238 Martinez, F.X. Casasayas, R. Burés, S. Cañameras, N. 1988 Titration curves of different organic substrates Acta Hort. 221 105 116 McBride, M.B. 1994 Environmental chemistry of soils. Oxford Univ. Press. New York, NY

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a reason for reduced activity ( Barrett 1982 ; Burchill et al., 1981 ). The chemistry and physical nature of fresh pine wood particles are also likely much different from that of PB (or any other organic or inorganic substrate component), which is

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Soilless substrates containing wood fiber are increasingly being used for the production of containerized floriculture crops in the United States. This is partially a result of increasing concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of

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availability has been most troublesome. Handreck (1995) reviewed research on Mn extraction from potting media and summarizes the body of work as conflicting, largely as a result of the complexity of Mn chemistry in soils and substrates. Further research

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pump ( Marschner, 1995 ). Similarly, anion uptake by plants is a basic reaction despite the acidic factors for sulfur and chlorine in Table 1 . Overall, the substrate-pH effect of a fertilizer salt is a balance between inorganic chemistry and the

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is primarily a function of lime particle size, lime chemistry, acid naturalizing value, and initial substrate pH ( Fisher et al., 2006 ). Residual lime is the proportion of unreacted lime remaining after neutralization of substrate pH. In addition

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ensure plant growth is not restricted. The negative impacts (i.e., leaching and runoff) of this strategy are more pronounced in containerized crop production where nutrient uptake efficiencies are low because of the relatively inert substrates used as

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Pine wood components are increasingly being used in soilless substrates to produce floriculture crops in the United States, particularly as a substitute for peat and perlite ( Drotleff, 2018 ; Harris et al., 2020 ). Sphagnum peatmoss is the major

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