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drought resistance in tall fescue ( Lolium arundinaceum ) and disease resistance in strong creeping red fescue and chewings fescue ( F. rubra ssp. commutata ) are also well established ( Bonos et al., 2005 ; Clarke et al., 2006 ; Malinowski and Belesky

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Fine fescue is a group of several species in the genus Fesctuca , including chewings fescue, hard fescue, strong creeping red fescue, and slender creeping red fescue ( F. rubra ssp. littoralis ) ( Bonos et al., 2006 ). They are known for drought

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-tolerant chewings, hard, and strong creeping red fescues; and 2) to conduct field trials to compare the new selections to commercially available cultivars and experimental lines not selected for tolerance to mesotrione. Materials and methods First

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, including strong creeping red fescue, slender creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, hard fescue, and sheep fescue. Fine fescue species are cool-season grasses widely used in home lawns and golf courses throughout cool-temperate climates. They form attractive

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) Auquier] ‘Barcrown’ and ‘Louisa’, strong creeping red fescue ( Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaud.) ‘Leik’ and ‘Pernille’, hard fescue [ Festuca trachyphylla (Hackel) Krajina] ‘Pintor’ and ‘Ridu’, sheep fescue [ Festuca ovina L. ssp. hirtula (Hackel

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pesticides. Three of the fine fescue species most widely used for turfgrass areas are strong creeping red fescue ( F. rubra L. subsp. rubra ), Chewing’s fescue [ F. rubra L. subsp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman], and hard fescue ( F. brevipilia Tracey). Strong

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Studies were conducted on the host plants of four billbug species (Coleoptera:Curculionidae: Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal, S. venatus Chitt., S. inaequalis Say, and S. minimus Hart) found on New Jersey turfgrasses. A collection of 4803 adults from pure stands of various turfgrasses revealed all four billbugs on Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and S. parvulus, S. venatus, and S. minimus on Chewings fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. commutata Gaud.). Since the presence of larvae, pupae, or teneral adults more accurately indicates the host status of a grass species, immature billbugs were collected from plugs of the various grass species and reared to adults for identification. All four species were reared from immature billbugs found in Kentucky bluegrass turf; immatures of S. venatus, S. inaequalis, and S. minimus were found in tall fescue; S. venatus and S. minimus in perennial ryegrass; and S. inaequalis in strong creeping red fescue (F. rubra L. ssp. rubra). A laboratory experiment was also conducted in which billbug adults were confined in petri dishes with either Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, or bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.). Only minor differences were found between the four grasses in billbug survival, number of eggs laid, and amount of feeding. In general, bermudagrass was the least favored host and the other grasses were equally adequate hosts. The results of this study indicate a need for updating host-plant lists of these four billbug species.

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Creeping bentgrass is used widely on golf-putting greens and fairways in temperate regions. The strong tolerance to close mowing and low temperatures makes creeping bentgrass very competitive in its adapted region compared with other species ( Adams

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Turfgrass seeds can be sown individually, in mixes, or overseeded to provide green color and uniform surfaces in all the seasons. This investigation was conducted to compare different turfgrass species and their seed mixtures. In this research, the turfgrasses—perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Barball'), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Merion'), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. var. rubra `Shadow')—in monoculture or in mixtures of 1:1 (by weight) and a 1:1:1:1 (by weight) and two sport turfgrasses—BAR 11 (Barenbrug Co.) and MM (Mommersteeg Co.)—were used. The seeds were sown in March and October (spring and fall sowing) in 1998 and 1999. The experiments were conducted in a split-split block design with year as main plot, sowing season as subplot, and turfgrass types as subsubplot. The turfgrasses were compared by measuring visual quality, chlorophyll index after winter and summer, rooting depth, verdure and/or root fresh and dry weight, tiller density, and clippings fresh and dry weight. Fall sowing was superior to spring sowing and resulted in greater root growth, clipping yield, and chlorophyll content. Poa+Cynodon seed mixture was the best treatment and had high tiller density, root growth, and chlorophyll content. Lolium and Festuca monocultures, and Poa+Festuca and Cynodon+Festuca seed mixtures were not suitable with regard to low tiller density, sensitivity to high temperatures, low root growth, and low tiller density, respectively. The cool-warm-season seed mixture (Poa+Cynodon) can be used alternatively in overseeding programs in the areas with soil and environmental conditions similar to this research site.

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allelochemicals, we would recommend at this time that one considers the selection of a fine-leaf fescue within the subspecies chewing's fescues, strong creeping fescues, or creeping red fescues for production in the temperate northeast. In addition, certain hard

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