for blue fruit, four for green fruit). Mean separation was performed using Tukey’s honestly significant difference ( hsd ) test ( P ≤ 0.05). Analysis was done with JMP (Version 10; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Data for stone cell number were analyzed
Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead
A. Erez, Z. Yablowitz and R. Korcinski
Fresh fruits of stone fruit species are either lacking or in short supply in the months of March and April on the world market. This results from the absence of late-maturing cultivars in most of these species and from their poor storage capabilities. In March–April, supply from the Southern Hemisphere is dwindling or finished, while supply from the Northern Hemisphere has not started yet. A horticultural system was developed in Israel to get early fruit ripening of stonefruit species. The system developed is based on early completion of dormancy requirements followed by greenhouse tree growing. The system uses the following elements: 1) Improve chilling accumulation in winter by using evaporative cooling, to prevent chilling negation by high day temperatures. 2) Monitor salt accumulation level to prevent damage to branches and buds. 3) Monitor bud temperature and evaluate dormancy development according to the dynamic model. 4) Use dormancy breaking chemicals to compensate for part of the chilling not applied. 5) Cover of the trees with polyethylene having the appropriate characteristics of light filtering. 6) Keep the temperature in the greenhouse lower than the maximal temperature allowed, at every specific stage of development by ventilation. By using this system, fruit ripening was advanced by 4 to 6 weeks in peaches and nectarines (harvested from late March) and by 4 weeks in sweet cherries (harvested from April 11). Yields of 20 to 30 tons/ha were obtained in both species with high fruit quality.
María José Arismendi, Patricio Hinrichsen, Ruben Almada, Paula Pimentel, Manuel Pinto and Boris Sagredo
, 2006 ). Stone fruit production occupies ≈43,000 ha ( Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2007 ) distributed in different regions of the country, which provides adequate climatic conditions with cold-hours and degree-days that allow early and late
David H. Byrne
Despite the hundreds of existing stone fruit (Prunus spp.) cultivars used for fresh market, there is a continuing need to develop new stone fruit cultivars as the requirements of the industry change. Over the last 20 years there has been a shift toward private breeding as the public sector decreases its support of these long-range programs. As a result there are fewer public breeding programs and many of those still operating protect their releases and partially fund their programs with royalty payments. Other trends that are shaping the development of new stone fruit cultivars are a need for smaller or more easily managed tree architecture, a trend toward the use of fewer agricultural chemicals, the expansion of production zones into the milder winter zones to allow year-round availability of stone fruit, a general diversification of fruit types being marketed, the increased awareness of the health benefits of fruit consumption, the need for better and more consistent quality, and given the global marketing of these fruit the increased need for enhanced postharvest qualities. The breeding programs of the world are responding to these trends and working toward developing the cultivars for the world markets of the future.
Carlos H. Crisosto, David Slaughter, R. Scott Johnson, Luis Cid and David Garner
Maximum maturity indices for different packinghouse conditions based on cultivar critical bruising thresholds and bruising potentials were developed for stone fruit cultivars. The critical bruising thresholds, based on fruit firmness, and the bruising probabilities varied among stone fruit cultivars. In general, plums tolerated more physical abuse than yellow-fl esh peach, nectarine, and white-flesh peach cultivars. Impact location on the fruit was an important factor in the determination of critical bruising thresholds. Potential sources of bruising damage during fruit packing were located using an accelerometer (IS-100). A survey of different packinghouses revealed that bruising potentials varied from 21 to 206 G. Bruising potential was reduced by adding padding material to the packinglines, minimizing height differences at transfer points, synchronizing timing between components, and reducing the operating speed. Bruising probabilities for the most-susceptible California-grown cultivars at different velocities and Gs have been developed. Development of a practical sampling protocol to determine fruit firmness during maturation was studied.
Quality of stone fruit is defined by fruit size, color, firmness, flavor, shape, general appearance, adhesion and size of the stone and fruit surface characteristics (e.g. fuzz, abrasions, pest damage). Cultural practices, such as pruning, nutrition, irrigation, growth regulator usage and pesticide applications can influence these quality characteristics to a greater or lesser extent. Adequate potassium nutrition can improve soluble solids and fruit size in plums. Excess nitrogen fertilization can soften peaches. Well-timed calcium sprays are thought to improve the firmness of sweet cherries, as are applications of gibberellin. Ethylene synthesis inhibitor usage can alter the timing of ripening, reduce early fruit drop and improve storage. Irrigation scheduling is a tool that can be used to regulate final fruit size and firmness, as well as time of maturation. Selective pruning is used to structure a tree's architecture for improved light penetration to improve fruit size and color. These and other production practices will be discussed in relation to how they affect fruit quality in stone fruit.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells events in the process of lignifications of plant tissues in flesh of Asian pear have been growing as a depressing factor of fruit quality. Therefore, these studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes, and to determine the effects of drought stress and calcium foliar application on the formation of stone cell. Fruit quality as contents of the stone cells, such as texture profile, reducing sugars, firmness, and fruit size, were determined. During the growing season of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett and Pyrus ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael Colt, S. Krishna Mohan and John Fellman
40 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 414-421) FRUIT CROPS: CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT I
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
To find out the formation time of stone cell, drought stress, isolated from water by plastic house, was inflicted on pear trees at 30 days before full bloom, full bloom stage, 30 days after full bloom and 60 days after full bloom during 30 days, respectively. Adhesiveness, gumminess, cohesiveness and chewiness increased suddenly in fruits contained stone cell more then 28.0mg/g in flesh and hardness was higher in pear fruit with higher stone cells, but the changes of the springiness as contents of the stone cells showed no difference. By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin. The stone cell in flesh enlarged by drought stress compared to control, and then stone cell per areas was the largest at 30 days after full bloom. Therefore, it seems that the drought stress became a cause of inducing stone cell. The stone cell was decreased by the application of calcium chloride 0.5 %, on 30 days after full bloom. Also, fruit firmness was increased compared to control on harvest time. Calcium chloride application showed a possibility for the inhibition of stone cell formation
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells are observed in the process of lignifications of tissues in flesh of pear as a depressing factor of fruit quality. These studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes. During the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, P. communis cv. Bartlett and P. ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin.