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minimize water loss. Plants can regulate transpiration by increasing leaf stomatal resistance. Under the water deficit environment, plants synthesize a phytohormone, abscisic acid, which triggers stomatal closure to prevent transpirational water loss

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tolerance responses are better suited to urban landscapes. Deep-rooted, drought-avoiding species that become stressed and lose visual quality in shallow urban soils would be less suitable than species that withstand drought through stomatal closure and

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., 2006 ). Salinity may limit photosynthesis through induction of stomatal closure leading to a reduction in intercellular CO 2 concentration ( Brugnoli and Lauteri, 1991 ) and inhibition of non-stomatal factors such as chlorophyll synthesis

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the chloroplast, the “mesophyll conductance,” and how it may be affected by water stress and by carbon dioxide concentration as well as taking into account the well-known difficulties in leaf gas exchange analysis presented by “patchy” stomatal closure

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mesophyll is transported to guard cells where it promotes stomatal closure by inducing net efflux of potassium ions and thus reducing turgor pressure ( Fan et al., 2004 ; Li et al., 2006 ; Schroeder et al., 2001 ). It is also known that ABA is involved in

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for C. sinensis ( Fig. 3A ) and the seventh week for C. unshiu ( Fig. 3B ). Transpiration remained low at the coldest temperatures in part because of stomatal closure ( Fig. 3C–D ), but evaporative demand was also less in the cold acclimation

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Abscisic acid is a hormone that has an important role in regulating stomatal closure. In response to drought stress, ABA can be synthesized in roots and translocated to leaves by way of the transpirational stream ( Davies et al., 2005 ; Malladi and

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temperatures such as those that occur at midday. Under this condition, improved efficiency in stomatal closure of T1 and T2 plants were noted in comparison with T3 plants ( Fig. 5 , P < 0.001). This phenomenon is consistent with Sojka (1992) , who indicated

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lose turgor pressure and reducing stomatal aperture ( Grabov and Blatt, 1998 ; Kim et al., 2010 ). This hormone may also indirectly induce stomatal closure by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of leaf vascular tissue ( Pantin et al., 2012

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typical feedforward control, showing strong responsiveness to changes in ambient evaporative demand. However, Tenhuen et al. (1982) showed that midday stomatal closure occurs under high transpirational demand despite adequate soil water availability

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