( Lurie and Watkins, 2012 ). However, 1-MCP can increase the incidence of diffuse skin browning ( Larrigaudière et al., 2010 ), flesh browning ( Lee et al., 2012 ; Watkins, 2008 ), radial stem-end flesh breakdown ( Lee et al., 2016 ), and CO 2 injury
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell
inconsistently associated with fruit size ( Lee et al., 2013 ). Symptoms in untreated fruit can appear first as diffuse browning in the stem-end cortex tissue, and symptoms can progress through the equator and into the calyx-end cortex tissue ( Lee et al., 2013
Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell
have some similarities to ‘Empire’ flesh browning as symptoms initiate at the fruit stem end and then progress toward the calyx end ( Jung and Watkins, 2011 ; Lee et al., 2012a ). ‘Empire’ flesh browning symptom development has a relationship with
Elena de Castro, William V. Biasi, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
.5 ºC. Within 2 months of air storage, fruit exhibited stem-cavity browning or stem-end scald. The disorder was observed in all 4 years, but was studied in detail only in 2004 ( Table 2 ). After 4 months of air storage, the incidence was often
Todd C. Einhorn, Yan Wang, and Janet Turner
10 or 30 ppm were significantly firmer and had numerically less stem browning (SB) at the end of cold storage than untreated fruit; the effects were rate-dependent ( Horvitz et al., 2003 ). GA lengthened the storability of ‘Bing’ ( Zhang and Whiting
Wol-Soo Kim* and Young Kim
Sweet persimmon, `Fuyu', is the major cultivar for MA storage, but browning of blossom end part (BBEP) and darkening are occurring during storage and decrease fruit qualities in fresh fruit markets in Korea. The symptom of BBEP of fruit started to occur on the blossom end part and spread to the middle and stem end part. These fruits lose their marketable values. Calcium has very important role in cell membrane in physical and physiological. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soluble Ca treatments of fertigation (FG) and foliar application (FA) on soil properties, tree growth and fruit quality and on the occurrence of BBEP. Ca content was high in Ca FA and Ca + IBA FG compared to other treatments. This increase might affect the soil pH, and so pH followed the same pattern of Ca content in soil. In leaves and fruits, Ca content was much higher in Ca Ca FA and Ca + IBA, Ca FG, respectively. Ca content in fruit parts showed stem end part “middle part” blossom end part. In fruit quality, fruit firmness, soluble solid content and fruit weight did not show any tendency in treatments. The occurrence rate of BBEP was very low 14% in Ca FA and 20% in Ca FG than 50% in control. These results showed that Ca content in soil, leaves and fruits was increased by soil FG and FA and the increased Ca content in blossom end part have a negative relationship with BBEP in sweet persimmon.
C. Stevens, C. L. Wilson, J. Y. Lu, V. A. Khan, E. Chalutz, M. K. Kabwe, Z. Haung, S. Droby, and L. Pusey
Low doses of ultraviolet light (254nm UV–C) irradiation reduced postharvest rots of pome, stone and citrus fruits. Brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) of `Elberta' and `Loring' peaches was significantly reduced by UV–C. Alternaria rot (Alternaria spp.) and bitter rot (Colletotrichum spp.) the principal storage rots of `Golden Delicious apples showed significant reduction following UV–C treatment. Further application of UV–C was effective in controlling green mold rot (Penicillium digitatum) of `Dancy' Tangerines and `Marsh Seedless' grapefruits, stem end rot (Alternaria citri), as well as sour rot (Geotrichum candidum) of `Dancy' tangerines after irradiation.
Christopher J. Clark and Douglas M. Burmeister
Development of browning induced in `Braeburn' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit by a damaging CO2 concentration was monitored weekly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a 4-week storage trial (0.5 °C, 2 kPa O2/7 kPa CO2). Discrete patches of high-intensity signal, distributed randomly throughout the fruit, were observed in multislice images of samples after 2 weeks of storage; these patches were eventually confirmed as being sites of browning reactions after dissection at the end of the trial. Subsequently (weeks 3 and 4), signal intensity at sites of incipient damage increased and patches enlarged and coalesced. After 2 weeks of storage, the extent of affected tissue, averaged across all image slices, was 1.5%, increasing to 15.9% and 21.3% after 3 and 4 weeks. The average rate at which tissue damage spread in individual slices was 0.81 (range: 0–3.70) cm2·d–1 between weeks 2 and 3, declining to 0.32 (range: 0–1.55) cm2·d–1 in the final week. Tissue damage induced under these conditions did not spread at the same rate at all locations within individual fruit, nor was it preferentially located toward the stem or calyx ends of the fruit.
Patrick P. Moore and Rita L. Hummel
Days to bud break and freezing tolerance of `Chilcotin', `Chilliwack', `Meeker' and `Willamette' red raspberry were measured during the 1990-1991 winter and at monthly intervals from mid-September 1991 through mid-March 1992. Canes were harvested from the field and cut into two-bud samples which were either frozen in laboratory tests or held with cut stem ends in water in a controlled environment chamber and monitored daily until bud growth was observed. Viability was estimated by visual browning after exposure to controlled laboratory freezing treatments. In general, freeze test results indicated `Meeker' and `Willamette' were not as hardy as `Chilliwack' and `Chilcotin' in late fall and midwinter but retained their hardiness longer in spring. Results for 1990-1991 indicated the greatest delay in days to bud break occurred in midwinter.
Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen, and Raymond M. Wheeler
Sweetpotato is being studied at Tuskegee University as a potential crop for use in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Advanced Life Support program to provide food for long-term space exploration missions. Stem cuttings are