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use of the dendrometer, an electronic sensor that measures the stem diameter variations (SDV) originated by water changes in the trunk tissues ( Molz and Klepper, 1973 ). The high-frequency measurements obtained with this sensor usually point to an

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Commercial production of bunched broccoli on the Eastern Shore of Virginia has been limited because of shortened internodes resulting in thick, tough stalks. A field study was completed to examine the influence of plant type (transplants or direct seeded), plant population (5800 or 8700 plants/ha), and N application (112 kg/N with zero, one, or two sidedress applications of 40 kg·ha–1) on marketable yield, head diameter, and stem diameter of `Packman' broccoli. None of the measured characteristics improved significantly with sidedress N application. Marketable yield and average head weight were significantly correlated (P = 0.01) to the total number of heads harvested (r = 0.70 and r = –0.91, respectively). More heads were harvested for the high population, direct-seeded treatment and fewer for the low-population transplants. Average stem diameter of transplants was slightly greater than that of direct-seeded broccoli being significant (P = 0.05) in the second and third harvests. However, few stems were of commercially acceptable diameter regardless of treatment combination. Additional evaluation of cultural management strategies and cultivar selection is needed to successfully promote commercial production of bunched broccoli in this growing area.

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Branches were collected from trees in July. Lengths with a 2.5-cm caliper were cut to 30 cm and placed horizontally into flats of perlite with half of the diameter of each stem above the perlite surface. Flats were watered daily with tap water and stems were kept moist. Buds swelled quickly, and after 6 days, small epicormic shoots were visible. These softwood shoots continued to elongate and retain good turgor for 2 weeks, when they were excised and placed in vitro. Shoottip and nodal explants were placed onto MS medium with 1 μM BA; 1 M IBA; and 0, 3, or 10 μM TDZ where shoots slowly elongated. Forcing large stems in the greenhouse has been superior to forcing smaller stem tips in the laboratory because of lower contamination (40% on shoots from large stems vs. up to 90% on shoots from small stems), longer life of the softwood shoots (less wilting from the larger stems), a longer time during the year for forcing, and the possibility of forcing shoots from more juvenile wood than stem tips.

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Abstract

Transpiration rate, stem diameter, and leaf temperature of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were found to be sensitive indicators of stomatal response to ozone exposure. Time of reaction of each to 1.2 ppm ozone was 3 min. Stem diameter showed marked oscillation and leaf temperature slight oscillation, when ozone was applied. Correlation coefficiennt between ozone concentration and transpiration rate at the equilibrium status after the beginning of exposure was r = 0.718, and increasing the concentration of ozone decreased stomata size. Thus, it was determined that low sensitivity of satsuma mandarin to ozone is due to rapid stomatal closure by ozone.

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Abstract

Tuber initiation on rooted potato cuttings has been shown to be favored by shortened photoperiods (2). The objective of this study was to characterize the initiation and growth of tubers on plants in growth chambers and to establish an appropriate covariate for tuber mass measurements. Preliminary data on the effects of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on tuber growth are also described.

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plants were 6 to 7 years old, had well-developed stems with three or more vascular cylinders toward the base, and were cultivated in pots (height 40 cm × diameter 35 cm) in a shadecloth production area. They had received routine fertilization and

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diameter), and main stem diameter (at the median position of the main stem) were measured on four plants per experimental unit. The most developed lateral shoot on each plant was marked for measurements of the shoot stem length, diameter (at the median part

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2017, showing 8-m-wide open space for root egress. ( B ) Schematic of the plant traits that were measured. CD, canopy diameter; PH, plant height; RR, root radius; SD, stem diameter. These developments presented a unique opportunity to determine the

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ventilated boxes and kept in the shed to await further observations. Determination of dried stem diameter, flowering head size, and flower retention on impact. For these postharvest responses, we did not separate single and spray stems. Subsample measurements

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. Ambient wind speed was recorded with a Model 014 MET-ONE Wind Speed Sensor (Campbell Scientific, Inc., Logan, UT). Stem height, stem base diameter, root tip density, and root extension were measured weekly. Root tip density was determined by counting the

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