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-strain cocktail of S. enterica (serovars Enteritidis, Hartford, Michigan, Montevideo, and Poona) resulted in 25% of ripened fruit contaminated ( Guo et al., 2001 ). Additionally, plants inoculated by stem injection 5 cm below the flower base also produced

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biochemical diversity ( Norstog and Nicholls 1997 ). The most common sugars have been measured from stems of several cycad species (Marler and Cascasan 2018; Marler and Cruz 2020 ; Marler and Lindström 2014 ). The protocols from these prior studies did not

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Blueberries rank as the second most important berry crop in North America with a total area of 96,869 ha ( Strik, 2006 ). As blueberry acreage increases, pathogen diversity and diseases become a more important issue. Stem blight, caused by the

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during the fall and overwinter on dormant stems. Flowering will therefore only occur the next year if terminal and/or lateral flower buds are present and undamaged. Previous studies have shown that maximum stem cold-hardiness of different H. macrophylla

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. Microgreens with longer stems are normally more attractive to most consumers; therefore, plant height is one of the most important microgreen appearance qualities. In addition, plant height or stem length is an important technological quality trait. Most

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Lateral branches of poinsettia tend to break from the main stem as plants reach maturity. The cause of poor stem strength is not known; however, suggested factors implicated in poor stem strength are: rate of nitrogen fertilizer used, type of plant growth regulator used, crowding of plants, or stem diameter of the cutting. Four different experiments were conducted to determine if these factors affected stem strength of poinsettia. Experiment 1: `Freedom Red', `Success', `V-17 Angelika Red', `Red Sails', `Nutcracker Red', `Cortez', `Maren', and `Red Splendor' poinsettia were fertilized with 20N–1P0–20K at 75, 75/125, 125/200, or 200 ppm N drip fertigation with zero leachate. Experiment 2: Three plant growth regulators were applied to `Pearl' and `Jolly Red' poinsettias. Experiment 3: `Freedom Red' plants were grown in a 625, 900, 1225, or 1600 cm2 area. Experiment 4: Rooted `Freedom Red' cuttings with stem diameters of 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, or 7.5 mm were used. A force meter was used to determine the strength of each lateral on the main stem of the six replications in each experiment. The lower laterals had the least stem strength and the top lateral had the highest stem strength for all treatments in all experiments. The stem strengths of some cultivars in experiment 1 were stronger at the lower fertilizer rates. Type of plant growth regulator had no significant affect on most poinsettia cultivars. The stem strengths of poinsettias in experiments 3 and 4 varied according to which lateral was measured.

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often have excessive stem elongation as a result of dense spacing or suboptimal environmental conditions, which results in overgrown, unattractive, and unmarketable plants ( Krug et al., 2006a , b ; Starman et al., 2004 ). For many potted flowering

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Gummy stem blight is a major disease of watermelon [ C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai]. It is caused by three genetically distinct Stagonosporopsis species, S. cucurbitacearum (syn. Didymella bryoniae ), S . citrulli , and S . caricae

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presence of a sclerenchyma sheath. William et al. (1984) found no correlation between stem sclerification and poor root formation, but instead associated poor rooting with the suberization of tissue in the cortex. Sachs et al. (1964) found no

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available in the US nursery trade because they are difficult to propagate by stem cuttings and micropropagation protocols have not been established. Recently, the female cultivar UConn Compact was selected for its compact habit. Although there has been

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