walnut staminate flowering and the role of hormones in walnut catkin formation. Additionally, they have created a foundation for studying the regulation of staminate flowering in walnut. The results of this study also have significance for dioecious
Ying Gao, Hao Liu, and Dong Pei
I.E. Yates and Darrell Sparks
External “morphological characteristics of catkins from one protogynous (`Stuart') and one protandrous (`Desirable') cultivar of pecan [Carya illinoensis Wangenh.) C. Koch] were examined to define markers of cellular differentiation in the anthers. The angle between the catkin rachis and the bract, visibility of the bracteole, rachis, and anther, and anther color proved to be markers by which development could be categorized into five stages. `Stuart' catkins with bracts as the only externally visible portion of the floret (Stage I) commonly had two locules in each anther lobe. When bracteoles became externally visible (Stage II), cellular specialization had occurred to form a central core containing reproductive cells and tapetal cells differentiated and separated from the exterior layers of the anther wall. Disintegration of tapetal cells and thickening of endothecium eel! walls occurred as the angle between the rachis and bract increased to 45° (Stage III). The anther wall was reduced to only two cell layers, epidermis and endothecium, as the anthers became visible (Stage IV). The pollen grains were mature when the anthers developed a yellowish tinge (Stage V) just before anther dehiscence. Tapetal cells had developed distinguishing traits in anthers of Stage I `Desirable' catkins and endothecial cells of Stage II. Internal anther development was similar for both cultivars from Stages III-V. Trichomes, a common feature-on the surface of the staminate floral parts, became less dense with proximity of the floral parts to the interior of the floret and with catkin maturity.
William W. Coates
The ability to remove the pistillate flowers and young nuts from precocious lateral-bearing English walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars during the first several years following planting would be useful both in reducing competition with vegetative growth and eliminating potential infection sites for blackline disease (cherry leafroll virus). Applications of ethephon shortly after full bloom were shown to effectively remove all or most pistillate flowers depending upon spray timing and ethephon concentration. Moderate phytotoxicity and reduced seasonal growth limit the usefulness of this technique in the field. Removal of staminate flowers (catkins) prior to pollen release may reduce the excessive pistillate flower abscission of the `Serr' cultivar. Applications of ethephon shortly before the onset of pollen shedding were shown to be ineffective in catkin removal.
Hening Hu and Darrell Sparks
The effect of Zn deficiency on reproductive growth of `Stuart' pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] was studied. At the most severe Zn-deficiency level, shoots were rosetted and produced neither. staminate nor pistillate inflorescences. At less severe Zn-deficiency levels, catkin length and weight decreased as Zn concentration in the leaf decreased. The number of fruits produced per shoot was reduced by Zn deficiency. Even though fruit abortion was not affected by Zn status of the shoot, fruit death and drying in situ increased with increasing Zn deficiency. Zinc deficiency dramatically suppressed fruit development and resulted in delayed and staggered shuck dehiscence.
William H. Krueger
English walnut (Juglans regia, L.) is a monoecious species bearing staminate and pistillate flowers separately on the same tree. Walnuts are generally self-fruitful, cross-compatible and dichogamous, having incomplete overlap of pollen shed and female receptivity. It is this characteristic which led to the recommendation that about 10% of the trees in a commercial planting be a cultivar with a pollen shed period overlapping pistillate flower receptivity of the main cultivar. Excessive pollen load has been implicated in the `Serr' cultivar in pistillate flower abortion (PFA), the loss of the female flowers early in the season before fruit drop due to lack of pollination. PFA can be reduced and yield improved in `Serr' orchards by reducing pollen load. This can be accomplished by pollinizer removal, or catkin removal at the beginning of pollen shed by mechanical shaking. In years of significant bloom overlap between staminate and pistillate bloom, PFA can be further reduced and yield improved by removing `Serr' catkins. PFA occurs to a lesser extent in other cultivars such as `Chico', `Chandler', `Vina' and `Howard'. This information has led to the reevaluation of pollinizer recommendations. Research focused on optimum pollinizer levels in `Chandler', a cultivar of increasing importance to the California walnut industry, has been inconclusive. Lack of pollinizers may impact yields to a greater extent in the in the northern San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley than in the southern San Joaquin Valley. In any case the previously recommended 10% appears to be excessive. Two to three percent is probably adequate to limit losses due to lack of pollination without resulting in excessive PFA, and is currently being recommended by extension farm advisors and specialists. Factors to consider when determining the number of pollinators to plant include: cultivar susceptibility to PFA, walnut pollen load in the area and local pollination and fruit set experiences.
Alternately bearing `Cheyenne' pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees were studied to assess the temporal aspects of previous season fruit development on several reproductive and vegetative traits of horticultural importance. Action spectra were generated and used to identify the relative sensitivities of these traits to the temporal aspects of fruiting. Based on date of maximum rate of change in sigmoidal models fitted to these action spectra, the relative sensitivity of certain important growth and developmental parameters to fruit removal time was number of distillate flowers per terminal shoot > number of distillate flowers per flower cluster on lateral shoots> length of terminal shoots > percentage of lateral shoots with fruit= catkins per terminal shoot at top of the tree> percentage of terminal shoots with fruit > catkins per standard terminal shoot> shoots produced per l-year-old branch> percentage of l-year-old shoot death. Maximum rates of change for these reproductive and vegetative parameters were typically during the dough stage of ovule development; however, substantial change also occurred for several parameters over a much wider developmental window. No evidence was found for a hormone-like translocatable factor from developing fruit that either promotes or inhibits flowering. Extending the time from nut ripening to leaf drop increased production of staminate and distillate flowers the following year and appeared to increase fruit set.
Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan
and male inflorescence development, which could serve as baseline knowledge for future investigations of chinquapin reproduction. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Staminate catkins of Castanea henryi ‘Huali 4’ growing in Rucheng County (Hunan
. Staminate flowers are borne on catkins, usually 10 to 15 cm in length, which emerge from lateral buds on the wood from the previous season's growth. Catkin length, the number of flower clusters per catkin, and the number of flowers per cluster are variable
Yulia A. Kuzovkina, Michael Dodge, and Irina V. Belyaeva
Miq., japanese pussy willow or rosegold willow, is an ornamental willow commonly found in the nursery trade. It is cultivated for its graceful arching habit and outstanding early spring display of catkins emerging from large buds ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1
John M. Capik and Thomas J. Molnar
( Mehlenbacher, 1997 ; Mehlenbacher and Thompson, 1988 ). Hazelnuts are also dichogamous. Male (catkins, staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers have different chilling requirements to break dormancy, with catkins typically having lower chilling requirements