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AgCenter, 2019 ). Given this high level of production costs, there is little margin for error in terms of factors such as crop injury from off-target herbicide application or sprayer contamination events that can negatively impact yield. Maximum sweetpotato

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Foliar application of spray materials is an integral component of commercial citrus production. An intensive assessment of spray application practices has been stimulated by low fruit value and increased concern about potential surface water contamination in the Indian River citrus region of Florida. Many publications report research results regarding distribution of spray materials within orchards and off-target deposition, but interpretation is challenging because so many factors influence spray results, and integrating this information into practical recommendations is difficult. Canopy geometry and density are prominent factors contributing to variable deposition and spray drift. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction also greatly influence spray deposition and drift, and substantial changes can occur within seconds. In addition the physical and/or mechanical set up of the sprayer interact significantly with the other factors. A better understanding of these interactions should help growers optimize spray effectiveness and efficiency while reducing potential off-target effects.

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Parts I and II of this series revealed substantial opportunities for improving spraying of Indian River citrus (Citrus spp.). In this segment of our work we develop guidelines for growers to select the spray parameters providing an optimal balance between efficiency and efficacy while minimizing environmental contamination.

It is proposed that these guidelines could be codified in a simple expert system to make them easier to use. We propose that understanding limiting conditions may be the key to choosing spray options. Wind is a major factor influencing spray deposition and offtarget drift. Based on weather records, wind speeds below 5 mph (8.0 km·h-1) are only routinely observed from 2000 HR until 0800 HR, making night spraying a good choice for low-volume applications. The importance of adjusting sprayer set-up for individual groves is demonstrated, with economic estimates of the cost of failing to make these adjustments. Routine use of careful sprayer adjustments is also likely to reduce off-target drift. Improvements in equipment and spray chemicals are also discussed. Use of non-orchard buffer areas and/or windbreaks appear to offer considerable opportunity for reducing off-site spray movement.

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conducted and a large number of people involved. This prevented any environmental contamination or adverse health effects. The water plus NIS solution simulates most water-based insecticide sprays well ( Hoffmann et al., 2007a , 2007b ). Each sprayer tested

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Most common (apple) orchard sprayers in the United States are of the axial fan air-assist type configured with disc/whirl plate conventional spray nozzles producing fine droplets with a mean volumetric droplet diameter within the range 200 to 300 μm

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( Yeager et al., 2013 ). Additionally, there are few to no sprayers that are designed specifically for nursery crops ( Zhu et al., 2011a ; Zhu et al., 2006a ). Therefore, nursery operators tend to use orchard sprayers that are designed for use on larger

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tree physiology with consequent impact on orchard profitability. It has been reported that the glyphosate contamination of sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ) can result in peel burn and fruit drop ( Erickson, 1996 ). To minimize spray drift from herbicide

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equipment is radial air-assisted sprayers ( Zhu et al., 2017 ). These conventional sprayers deliver pesticides at a constant rate and usually apply pesticides to the entire field regardless of plant absence or plant structure variation, resulting in

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suggests that applications of novaluron may decrease the number of whiteflies produced during a cropping cycle. Low-drift sprayers reduce labor costs with efficacy equal to airblast sprayers Standard pesticide applications in U.S. peach orchards employ

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a hand sprayer. Data collection. Collection of data on the number of clean cultures after sterilization commenced 4 d after culturing and continued on a weekly interval for 4 weeks. Data collected on sterilization was converted to percentage. For the

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