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Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, and Joshua D. Sherman

absorbed by immature leaves. Foliar Zn absorption may be dependent on the form of Zn applied. Frequently used spray materials include ZnSO 4 and zinc nitrate [Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ]. In Zn spray-tank mixes that contain nitrate, the nitrate ion aids in the uptake of

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Dieter Foqué, Jan G. Pieters, and David Nuyttens

In 2004, a survey of Flemish ornamental plant growers revealed that they predominantly use knapsack sprayers and lances to spray pesticides ( Braekman and Sonck, 2008 ). These techniques are known for being labor-intensive and having a high risk of

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Karim Keshavarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Mahmoud Samar, Behzad Azadegan, and Patrick H. Brown

important role in pollen germination and pollen tube growth ( Storey, 2007 ) and foliar sprays of B increase pollen germination in a number of tree species including almond [ Prumus amygdalus ( Nyomora et al., 1997 )], pear [ Pyrus communis ( Lee et al

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Pascal Braekman, Dieter Foqué, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Jan G. Pieters, and David Nuyttens

use high-pressure spray equipment (i.e., spray guns or lances) to apply plant protection products, although spray boom equipment is becoming increasingly popular. A survey carried out in 2007 among growers of ornamental plants confirms this and

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Heping Zhu, James Altland, Richard C. Derksen, and Charles R. Krause

strategies, confirmation of the actual spray coverage and spray deposition on targets under field conditions is required ( Bache and Johnstone, 1992 ). The spray coverage required to effectively control pests has been studied for other crops ( Falchieri et al

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Polyxeni M. Filios and William B. Miller

useful for boxed cut flowers or potted plants ( Jones and Edelman, 2013 ). In the last few years, a sprayable formulation of 1-MCP (AFxRD-038; Rohm and Hass, Philadelphia, PA) has been registered for in-orchard use on fruit (apples, pears, and kiwifruit

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Jeff A. Anderson

. Seedlings were thinned to 20 plants per flat shortly after emergence. Plants were assayed 3 weeks after sowing seeds. For each experiment, 20 plants were sprayed with deionized water (control) or the commercial formulation (ready to use) of FreezePruf 24 h

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Lloyd L. Nackley, Brent Warneke, Lauren Fessler, Jay W. Pscheidt, David Lockwood, Wesley C. Wright, Xiaocun Sun, and Amy Fulcher

Pesticide spray applications must adapt to seasonal plant growth to minimize off-target losses of agricultural chemicals and reduce environmental and human health hazards. The canopies of perennial crops change over the season as buds burst

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J.A. Narciso, E.A. Baldwin, A. Plotto, and C.M. Ference

applications of fungicides have been shown to increase yields and decrease postharvest decay incited by B. cinerea , R. stolonifer and related opportunistic organisms are not well-controlled by preharvest fungicidal sprays. Most fungicides are residual on

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Lenny Wells, Jason Brock, and Tim Brenneman

on pecan scab have been studied since the 1920s; however, most studies have demonstrated little effect of S on pecan scab Fusicladium effusum G. Winter ( Bertrand et al., 1981 ; Waite, 1924 ). Foliar urea sprays are known to enhance fruit