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using mitotic spindle inhibitors such as colchicine or oryzalin ( Sattler et al., 2016 ; Wang et al., 2016 ). C. sativa is almost exclusively diploid (2n = 20) in the wild ( Small and Cronquist, 1976 ). There is only one report of a natural tetraploid

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the embryos failed to convert into fully developed plants. High concentrations of colchicine have been associated with plant cell death because of the highly toxic effect of this antimitotic agent, which blocks spindle fiber development and modifies

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, which is called inducing polyploidy ( Mansouri and Bagheri 2017 ). Polyploidy is a condition in which cells that are normally diploid acquire one or more additional sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy can be induced using mitotic spindle inhibitors

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similar mode of action at the molecular level. Both agents bind to plant microtubules that are involved in chromosome migration. Both agents disrupt mitosis by inhibiting spindle fiber formation at metaphase ( Strachan and Hess, 1983 ), resulting in an

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ability to attenuate incident light intensity and thereby functions as a sunscreen preventing excess light from photo-inhibiting chloroplasts in the peel tissue or damaging sensitive mesocarp tissue ( Solovchenko, 2010 ). The delocalized positive charge

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three broad steps (prefixative, fixative, and root squash) with slight variations for each step. For the prefixative step, roots are treated with one or more spindle fiber inhibitors to allow the cell cycle to continue to metaphase while arresting

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the equatorial plate for separation and tend to overlap during metaphase, sometimes making counting the exact number difficult. Although pretreatment solutions (e.g., 8-hydroxyquinoline, colchicine, or ice cold) inhibit the formation of spindle fibers

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pesticides ( Parween et al., 2012 ; Prasad et al., 2015 ). Deltamethrin, a pyrethroid, inhibits the formation of spindle fibers during cell division, thus producing abnormal cells ( Chauhan et al., 1986 ). Pyrethroids may also reduce photosynthetic light use

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activity, these compounds have also been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, and inhibit initiation, promotion, and metastasis of cancer ( Shanmugam et al., 2013 ). UA and its derivatives have also raised much interest for the potential to act as

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‘Sd 1 ’) ( Eeckhaut et al., 2004 ; Egolf, 1970 , 1981 , 1986 , 1988 ; Lee and Kim, 1976 ; Shim et al., 1993 ; Van Huylenbroeck et al., 2000 ; Van Laere et al., 2006 , 2007 , 2009 ). Spindle-fiber inhibitors (SFIs) have been used to double

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