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Kaitlyn M. Orde, Connor Eaton and Rebecca G. Sideman

produce is high ( Carey et al., 2009 ; Wien and Pritts, 2009 ), can assist growers in obtaining premium pricing ( Bjelić and Moravčević, 2006 ; Gent, 1991 ) and maintaining their customer base during the off-season. Spinach ( S. oleracea L.) is one of

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Beiquan Mou

), L. huidobrensis (Blanchard), and L. langei Frick. The predominant species in the major spinach production areas in central California was believed to be L. huidobrensis (pea leafminer) until the beginning of this century ( Morgan et al., 2000

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef and Mary Ann Lila

Spinach ( Spinacea oleracea L.) is a valuable agricultural crop that accumulates phytoecdysteroids and is a model plant for the study of phytoecdysteroid biosynthesis ( Grebenok et al., 1991 ). The main phytoecdysteroids that accumulate in spinach

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Michael Evans, Curt Rom, Edward E. Gbur Jr., Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen and David Hensley

The economic value of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) continues to grow in the United States as well as globally due to its high nutritive content. Spinach production has been valued over $250 million in the United States in 2014 ( USDA, 2015

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Haly L. Neely, Richard T. Koenig, Carol A. Miles, Teresa C. Koenig and Meriam G. Karlsson

, spinach, Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.), and radish ( Raphanus sativus L.). These species are considered nitrophilic ( Vogtmann et al., 1984 ) because of luxury nitrogen (N) consumption that may lead to its accumulation in excess of the

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Maria I. Villarroel-Zeballos, Chunda Feng, Angela Iglesias, Lindsey J. du Toit and James C. Correll

Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) is an economically valuable crop grown worldwide ( Morelock and Correll, 2008 ) and is affected by a number of biotic and abiotic disorders that can impact yield and quality ( Correll et al., 1994 ). Several

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Jacqueline Cormier, Robert Heyduck, Steven Guldan, Shengrui Yao, Dawn VanLeeuwen and Ivette Guzman

Standing’ spinach were selected as the annual winter intercrops. The temperature range for optimal production of kale is between 45 and 60 °F ( Johnny’s Selected Seeds, 2019 ). The temperature range for optimal spinach production is between 60 and 65 °F

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Marco Fontanelli, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Christian Frasconi, Marco Ginanni and Andrea Peruzzi

Spinach is a quick-maturing, cool-season vegetable crop grown for both fresh and processing markets. Italy is Europe’s leading spinach producer with ≈7000 ha ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013 ) and Tuscany is the top

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Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith and Michael Cahn

In California, fresh-market spinach is grown throughout the year and accounts for 59% of the total U.S. fresh market production [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2012 ]. In 2010, there were 26,900 acres of fresh market spinach grown in

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Beiquan Mou, Steven T. Koike and Lindsey J. du Toit

Spinach is an important leafy vegetable crop with ≈22,000 ha grown in the United States for both fresh and processed markets at a crop value of $215 million ( National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2007 ). Approximately 80% of U.S. spinach