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Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is intensively used as an animal feed in many developing countries. Information about trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), an antinutritional component in this crop, will be useful for breeding sweetpotato as animal feed. Nine sweetpotato lines were grown at two locations and fertilized or nonfertilized conditions at each location. Samples were analyzed for TIA using a substrate-specific colorimetric method. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds were used to compare the levels of TIA in sweetpotato and soybean. Activity in roots ranged from 29.5 to 55.0 units in the nine lines. The mean TIA in roots was 40.7 units averaged over lines and environments, which was ≈28% of the mean for the five soybean cultivars. Activity in sweetpotato vines was only ≈14.6% of that in the roots, and TIA in fertilized plots was 150% and 67% higher than that in nonfertilized plots in the two locations, respectively. There was a small but significant positive correlation between TIA and crude protein in roots. These results suggested that TIA in sweetpotato storage roots may be high enough to have a substantial nutritional impact on animals, whereas TIA in vines is very low and should be of less nutritional concern.

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fertilizers for container-crop production, alternative fertilizers made from biorenewable, nonsynthetic sources have been explored. Some sources include fish emulsions, liquid soybean-based fertilizer, corn gluten meal, millorganite, and, more recently, soy

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incorporated with a disk. No treatment plots were fumigated. In addition to compost and cover crops, strawberry preplant fertilizers consisting of soybean meal and sodium borate, were applied to all plots 1 week after cover crop biomass incorporation each year

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( Forcella, 2009a ; Wortman, 2014 ). A diverse range of materials have demonstrated effectiveness as grits for abrasive weeding, including granulated corn gluten meal, corn cobs, greensand fertilizer, walnut shells, and soybean meal ( Wortman, 2014

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mandates that organic producers develop a plan to phase out Chilean nitrate use over time. Liquid organic fertilizers as a group (e.g., liquid fish, soybean meal, and so on) offer special opportunities and special challenges for efficient N use. Increasing

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Field experiments were conducted over a 5-year period (1994-98) to determine the effect of various cropping systems (rotations) on fertilizer N requirements in processing pumpkins [Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) Duchesne ex Poir.] on medium- to fine-textured soil. Treatments consisted of a factorial combination of five N fertilization rates (0, 56, 112, 168, 224 kg·ha-1 N) and four pumpkin cropping systems: 1) pumpkins following corn (Zea mays L.); 2) pumpkins following soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]; 3) pumpkins following 2-years corn; and 4) pumpkins following fallow ground. Cropping systems were chronologically and spatially arranged in two complete cycles, with pumpkin studies taking place in 1996 and 1998. Averaged over the two studies, the optimal N fertilization rate for highest total weight of ripe fruit following soybeans was estimated at 109 kg·ha-1 N, compared to 128 kg·ha-1 N following fallow ground, even though yields were similar, suggesting a soybean N-credit of 19 kg·ha-1 N. Concurrently, the N fertilizer rate for highest total ripe fruit weight following corn was estimated at 151 kg·ha-1 N, and 178 kg·ha-1 following 2-years corn, indicating a negative rotation effect on pumpkin N requirements of 23 and 50 kg·ha-1 N, respectively. Minimum N fertilizer requirements, the N fertilizer rate associated with a ripe fruit yield of 50 t·ha-1, were calculated at 45, 37, 69, and 47 kg·ha-1 N in the respective cropping systems. Negative effects from excessive N fertilization were greater in pumpkins following soybeans than in pumpkins following corn or 2-years corn, with reductions in total ripe fruit weight of 21%, 9%, and 3%, respectively, at the highest N rate. A critical level for preplant soil NO 3-N of 17.6 mg·kg-1 was identified above which there was little or no pumpkin yield response to N fertilization.

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Commercial edamame (Glycine max) varieties and advanced edamame breeding lines from the Asian Vegetable Research Development Center (AVRDC) were tested for adaptability to southwest Washington. Edamame, or green vegetable soybeans, are specialty varieties of soybeans that are eaten at the green stage as a vegetable. For the vegetable market, 25 beans must weigh at least 20 g. Experimental procedure was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Recommendations from AVRDC for plant spacing and fertilizer application and timing were followed. In 1995, 13 commercial varieties and 10 AVRDC breeding lines were tested in an on-farm location in Chehalis. At the same location in 1996, 10 of these commercial varieties were again tested along with an additional six commercial varieties. Also in 1996, 12 new AVRDC breeding lines were tested along with the single line that was selected in 1995. Both years, all commercial varieties were harvested more than 40 days later than their advertised days to maturity. Three commercial varieties, White Lion, Shironomai, and Butterbeans, were high-yielding in both years. In 1995, one AVRDC breeding line was selected in Chehalis, and in 1996 five additional AVRDC breeding lines were selected. Earliness is a key factor affecting suitability of commercial varieties and breeding lines to the Chehalis area. In this region, irrigation also appears essential for production of large beans for the vegtable market. Pod weight was not a good indicator of bean weight. Seed was collected in Chehalis from AVRDC breeding lines for use in future trials.

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Abstract

Adjuvants at various concentrations were evaluated for phytotoxicity and capacity to enhance foliar absorption of N and P. Some adjuvants among the following classes were phytotoxic to soybean (Glycine max Merr.) leaves at concentrations of 0.25% and 0.5% active ingredient on a volume or weight/volume basis: sulfonates, alcohols, ethyoxylated hydrocarbons, esters, sulfates, and amines. Many adjuvants in the following classes: alcohols, sulfonates, ethoxylated hydrocarbons, polyethylene glycols, carbohydrates, proteins, and phosphates were not phytotoxic at concentrations as high as 1.0%. Sometimes increasing phytotoxicity occurred at increasing concentrations, but the humectants, such as glycerol and propylene glycol, were not phytotoxic at concentrations of 10.0%. Selected adjuvants were mixed with a foliar fertilizer (12.0N–1.7P–3.3K–0.5S) and evaluated for enhancement of foliar absorption of N and P. The average increases in percentage of N and P for the glycerol, lecithin, and Pluronic L-121 (an ethyoxylated hydrocarbon), and foliar fertilizer combinations, respectively, were 8.9%, 2.2%, and 2.5% for N and 34.2%, 27.6%, and 20.8% for P over the foliar fertilizer control, respectively, for the 3 adjuvants.

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Organic vegetable production acreage is expanding in California, but little research-based information is available to guide growers. Several new organic fertilizer materials are available but little data exists on efficient use of these materials. During 1998, the following materials: compost (C), pelleted chicken manure (PCM), fish meal (FM), liquid fish (LF), liquid soybean meal (LSM), feather meal (FTM), and seabird guano (SG) were evaluated. Each material was applied at treatment rates of 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg nitrogen (N)/ha to transplanted, sprinkler irrigated bell peppers. The materials were applied as 30N pre-transplant (PRE) and 30N at 20 days post-transplant (POST) for the 60N treatment; 60N PRE and 30N at 20 days POST and 30N at 40 days POST for the 120N treatment; and 60N PRE, 30N at 20 days POST, 45N at 40 days POST, and 45N at 70 days POST for the 180N treatment. Weekly soil nitrate nitrogen (SSN) over 16 weeks POST and fresh pepper yield was determined for all treatments. Weekly SSN varied from lows of 4 mg·kg-1 in 0N-treated plots to over 80 mg·kg-1 in FTM 180N-treated plots. Highest SSN was observed in FTM-, SG-, LSM-, LF-, and FM-treated plots at 180N and peaks in SSN lagged fertilizer application 3 to 4 weeks. Total pepper yield was not as markedly affected as early yield and size. Highest early yield and largest sizes were observed in FTM 180N-treated plots. Compost treated plots at 180N produced highest economic return per fertilizer dollar.

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Planting date is an important factor affecting soybean grain yield and grain quality. Early planting is recommended for soybean production in the northern and upper Midwest United States ( De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008 ; Robinson et al., 2009

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