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Katsumi Ohyama, Junichi Yamaguchi, and Ayumi Enjoji

production was ≈5000 plants/d. Materials and methods Plant production system with sole-source lighting. A research facility (floor area ≈1300 m 2 ) at Osaka Prefecture University was used as a model system for plant production with sole-source lighting ( Fig

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Claudia Elkins and Marc W. van Iersel

Production of young plants, such as seedlings and cuttings, under sole-source lighting is an alternative to greenhouse production where the natural daily light integral (DLI) in winter may be too low for the production of high-quality young plants

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

randomized within the two shelves between replications. Table 1. Lighting manufacturer, spectral ratio (%) from sole-source light (SSL) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) providing red (R) or blue (B) light, average photon flux from 400 to 700 nm ± sd derived

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

13 Jan. 2014. Supplemental and sole-source lighting treatments. Seedlings in the greenhouse were grown under AL or AL supplemented with ≈70 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPF at plant height [as measured with a spectroradiometer (PS-100; Apogee Instruments, Inc

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Devdutt Kamath, Yun Kong, Chevonne Dayboll, and Youbin Zheng

al., 2004 ; Mah et al., 2018 ; Moe et al., 1991 ). Controlled environment facilities equipped with electric light as sole-source lighting (SSL) have been increasingly used for commercial plant production ( Mitchell and Stutte, 2017 ). However

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Cary A. Mitchell

farming, or vertical farming applications. The latter typically are interested in LEDs for sole-source lighting of quick-turning greens that do not require high light levels for production. Many entrepreneurs are thinking about LED applications for

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Gioia D. Massa, Hyeon-Hye Kim, Raymond M. Wheeler, and Cary A. Mitchell

, and at Purdue University to examine the usefulness of LEDs as a sole source or as supplemental lighting for plant growth in space such as part of a life-support system on Mars. Although the vast majority of LED work thus far has been performed with

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

.S. Wolfgramm, R. Cavatte, P.C. Villela, F.G. Ventrella, M.C. DaMatta, F.M. 2009 Phenotypic plasticity in response to light in the coffee tree J. Environ. Expt. Bot. 67 421 427 Mitchell, C. Stutte, G. 2017 Sole-source lighting for controlled environment

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

July and 14 Sept. 2014. Fig. 1. Spectral quality delivered from sole-source light-emitting diode arrays with light ratios (%) of red:green:blue 74:18:8 (R 74 :G 18 :B 8 ), red:blue 87:13 (R 87 :B 13 ), or red:far-red:blue 84:7:9 (R 84 :FR 7 :B 9 ) at a

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Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

quality. Therefore, we compared lettuce growth and quality in a growth room under sole-source lighting and in a greenhouse environment under sunlight with supplemental lighting. For ‘Rouxai’ red leaf lettuce, we postulated that 1) increasing the B PFD