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Samuel J. Dunlop, Marta Camps Arbestain, Peter A. Bishop, and Jason J. Wargent

rapidly growing global population ( Godfray et al., 2010 ). A key factor contributing to the increased yields obtained from soilless production, as opposed to soil-based production, is the opportunity to select substrate materials that optimize and support

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Youssef Rouphael and Giuseppe Colla

environmental contamination under control, is to adopt cultivation systems that collect and reuse the extra irrigation water (closed-soilless systems). Hence, closed-soilless systems have been declared “environmentally friendly” because they drastically improve

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Mary A. Rogers

( Tyson et al., 2011 ). Other CEA systems such as vertical farms and passive solar heated greenhouses ( Fig. 1 ) use a hydroponic or soilless-media-containerized system, where regular applications of nutrients from external sources are required to maintain

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Kristopher S. Criscione, Jeb S. Fields, Jim S. Owen Jr., Lisa Fultz, and Edward Bush

reduce water use ( Asrey et al., 2018 ). Substrate management is one method that can lead to more water-efficient production practices for containerized crops. Soilless substrates were initially designed to decrease disease pressures in container

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Francisco Alcon, Mari Carmen García-Martínez, María Dolores De-Miguel, and María Ángeles Fernández-Zamudio

soilless cropping systems, which appear to be a safer and more decisive alternative for the producer ( Engindeniz, 2004 ). Currently, soil cultivation continues to dominate; however, soilless cultivation can be considered one of the most important

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Azeezahmed Shaik, Hardeep Singh, Sukhbir Singh, Thayne Montague, and Jacobo Sanchez

Kendall, 2012 ). Greenhouse soilless cultivation of leafy greens has been shown to produce greater yields when compared with field cultivation on the basis of area under production ( Greer and Diver, 2000 ). Greenhouse soilless production systems have

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Azeezahmed Shaik and Sukhbir Singh

LOFs consist of readily available nitrogen (N) ( Burnett et al., 2016 ; Hartz et al., 2010 ) that could potentially improve the growth and yield of vegetables in organic soilless production systems. Compared with SOFs, the LOFs consist of higher

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr, and William C. Fonteno

values of h can be no more than 100 cm. This range of tension is ideally suited for soilless substrates. Personal observation ( Buamscha et al., 2007 ) as well as those published by others ( Gizas and Savvas, 2007 ; Karlovich and Fonteno, 1986 ; Milks

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Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Rosanna Caputo, and Stefania De Pascale

soilless systems ( Kläring, 2001 ; Rouphael and Colla, 2005a , 2005b ). Closed-loop systems have been classified as “environmentally friendly” because they significantly improve the WUE as compared with free-drain soilless systems ( Massa et al., 2008

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Yasmina Chourak, El Hassan Belarbi, Evelynn Y. Martínez-Rivera, Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha-Chiamolera, Ana Araceli Peña-Fernández, José Luis Guil-Guerrero, and Miguel Urrestarazu

markedly low temperature (≈17 °C) is the best for flower emergence or anthesis from the corm ( Molina et al., 2005 ). This knowledge allows growers to program saffron flowering and increase production in soilless cultivation systems under controlled