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-Pérez and Batal, 2002 ; Greer and Dole, 2003 ; Lamont, 1993 ) on soil temperature ( Chakraborty et al., 2008 ; Díaz-Pérez, 2009 , 2010 ; Díaz-Pérez et al., 2005 ; Lamont, 2005 ), moisture ( Chakraborty et al., 2008 ; Greer and Dole, 2003 ; Ramalan

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Soil temperature affects the growth and development of crops ( Sun, 2005 ). Studies have shown that a 1 °C difference in soil temperature will seriously affect crop growth and development ( Sarkar et al., 2007 ; Sypka et al., 2016 ). Soil

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parameters vs. grape quality indices. The y-axis shows meteorological indicators (Y1–Y18) and soil indicators (Y19–Y25): Y1, average temperature from August to September; Y2, average temperature from April to October; Y3, annual mean temperature; Y4, average

Open Access

Abstract

A flexible, inexpensive system for experimental control of soil temperature independent of “above ground” temperature is described. The system is based on the control of air temperature around soil containers in an insulated sealed chamber.

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temperatures (≈10 °C) typical of early spring plantings in the northern United States reduce seed germination and establishment vigor of cool-season grasses when compared with more favorable soil temperatures of 20 to 30 °C ( He et al., 2013 ; Liu et al., 2001

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described earlier. Soil challenge. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effect of soil source, temperature, presence or absence of potato tubers, and selected pesticides on TCA volatile production. Because TCA consists of

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Abstract

Six-week treatment at a 13°C soil temperature initiated at the 4- and 6-leaf stages most effectively advanced flowering of Cyclamen persicum Mill. cvs. Mayer Reinweiss and Rosa von Zehlendorf-Tas. Stage of flower bud development immediately after treatment of 13°, 18.5, 24.0 and 29.5°C soil temperatures was more advanced, and mean flower bud number increased with each decrease of 5.5°C in soil temperature. At age 9 months, mean days to flower was lower and mean number of flowers per plant was higher with each decrease of 5.5°C in soil temperature. Plants treated at the 6-leaf stage flowered earlier and produced more flowers than those treated at the 4-leaf stage. The 9-month-old plants which had been treated at the 6-leaf stage were generally more advanced vegetatively than those treated at the 4-leaf stage, but the effect of soil temperature treatment on vegetative growth was negligible.

Open Access

The effect of constant 16C and noncontrolled soil temperature on flowering of four Alstroemeria cultivars grown in a greenhouse was studied over 3 years. Soil temperature regime did not influence either the start or cessation of flowering. During spring/summer, production was 15% lower under constant soil temperature, irrespective of cultivar. During fall/winter, the effect of constant soil temperature was cultivar-dependent; yield of `Red Sunset' was increased by 150%, while that for `Rio' decreased by 2270 relative to the noncontrolled. Annual production was not affected, but the ratio between the production of spring/summer and fail/winter decreased from 3.1 to 2.2 for noncontrolled and constant soil temperature, respectively.

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Carrot (Daucus carota L.) root cracking and breakage during harvest and handling operations result in serious losses. The environmental and management factors affecting carrot cracking and breakage susceptibility were investigated in a survey of fields and a series of trials conducted in California from 2000–02. Roots, leaves and soil were collected from a total of 31 commercial fields of `Sugar Snax' carrot, and soil texture and plant and soil fertility status were determined. Soil moisture was monitored in 10 fields to determine whether irrigation management was correlated with root cracking susceptibility; in 4 of these fields roots were harvested both before 0800 hr and at 1300 hr on the same day to directly compare the effects of root water status on cracking. The effect of N fertilization on cracking and breakage was investigated in 5 field trials. The relative susceptibility of 10 cultivars to cracking and breakage was also compared. Cracking susceptibility was determined with an impact test, and breakage with a loading test. Roots were selected by size (18 to 24 mm diameter) and cooled to 5 °C before testing. The percentage of roots cracked in the impact test varied from 7% to 75% among survey fields. Initial root water potential was not correlated with cracking incidence. However, after hydrating roots to minimize differences in water potential among fields, cracking incidence was correlated with turgor potential (r = 0.41). Soil sand content and mean air temperature in the 30 days preceding harvest were also correlated with cracking (r = –0.48 and 0.36, respectively), suggesting that cracking susceptibility may be minimized in cool weather and in light-textured soil. Irrigation management in the final 30 days preceding harvest had no consistent effect on root cracking. Time of day of harvest had a small but significant effect, with roots harvested before 0800 hr being more crack-susceptible. N fertilization in excess of that required to maximize root yield significantly increased cracking susceptibility. Cultivars varied widely in cracking susceptibility, with less variation in tissue strength and stiffness. Removal of the periderm dramatically decreased susceptibility to both cracking and breakage.

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barrier against soil erosion, reducing water evaporation from the soil, buffering against temperature fluctuations, suppressing weeds, and improving foliage quality ( Lamont, 2005 ; Vargas et al., 2018 ). Mulch films alter the flow of thermal energy

Open Access