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use N in the process ( Ashworth and Harrison, 1983 ). Billeaud and Zajicek (1989) and Sonsteby et al. (2004) found that soil N in mulched plots was lower than in unmulched plots. Brown (1996) , as well as Tukey and Schoff (1963) , compared pH and

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Northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is adapted to acidic soil conditions and is often most productive at soil pH between 4.5 and 5.5 ( Retamales and Hancock, 2012 ). To grow blueberry at sites with a higher initial soil pH

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results can be obtained within 1 to 2 d. Commercial kits typically use a colorimetric method for indicating macronutrient and pH levels; soil is measured into a sample container, extractant is added, and after a specified time for the reaction, the user

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species are mainly used in habitat restoration. Spiraea alba is also attractive to arthropod natural enemies and has been suggested as an important native species for habitat management ( Fielder and Landis, 2007 ). Soil pH greatly affects the

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material application are often determined based on initial soil pH, target soil pH for the crop, and the liming requirement to reach that target. However, agronomists specializing in soil fertility not only need to provide sound advice on making optimum

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exhibit leaf chlorosis in high-pH soils ( Luby et al., 2003 ; Renquist and Hughes, 1985 ). Research on strawberries in high-pH soil conditions is limited ( Renquist and Hughes, 1985 ; Rowley et al., 2010 ; Zaiter et al., 1993 ) and some of the older

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An extensive study (276 samples) was conducted in 1960 to correlate cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ait.) bog soil pH and productivity (Chandler, F. B. and Demoranville, I. E. 1961. Cranberries 26(3):9-10). At that time, soil pH averaged 4.37 and excellent productivity was represented by a yield greater than 10 mT/ha. Thirty years later, when more than 28 mT/ha is considered good yield, soil samples will be collected from these same sites and evaluated for pH by the methods used previously. Production records for the pact three years will be obtained and the average value for each location used to construct a regression of bog yield vs soil pH. Information presented will include: 1. productivity vs soil pH in 1960 and 1990; 2. change in soil pH after 30 years?; 3. possible reasons for changes-if any (grower interviews); 4. implications for the future.

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One- and 2-year-old 'Concord' (Vitis labruscana L.) grapevines were used to study the effect of soil pH on vegetative growth and nutrition. Ninety-eight, own-rooted, 'Concord' grapevines were planted in 94.6-L pots containing vineyard soil adjusted to seven soil pH levels ranging from 3.5 to 7.5. After the first growing season, seven vines from each soil pH treatment were randomly selected, destructively harvested, and measured for root and shoot growth. The remaining 49 vines over-wintered in the pots, were defruited in year two, and were destructively harvested at the end of the second growing season. There was a reduction in root biomass below soil pH of 4.5 and a greater reduction in shoot biomass leading to a higher root: shoot ratio. There were no significant differences in vegetative growth of young 'Concord' vines from a soil pH of 5.0-7.5. However, there was a trend toward lower shoot biomass and higher root: shoot ratio at the highest soil pH level. Phylloxera nodosities on roots were present in equal densities at all soil pH values. However, the negative impact of phylloxera on vine dry mass was greater on vines under nutrient stress at the highest and lowest pH treatments than on those with adequate nutrition at the mid-range soil pH values.

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The effect of soil moisture and pH levels on the vegetative growth of amaranth were studied in the greenhouse during 1990-91. Three soil pH levels: 4.5, 5.3, and 6.4 and four soil water levels: 3, 6, 12 and 18% (w/w) comprised the treatments of the two studies. The plants grown in pH 6.4 were significantly taller and had greater leaf area than plants grown in pH 5.3 or 4.7 soil. There was a significant decrease in all above ground plant parts with each increase in soil acidity. The top fresh weight of plants grown in 5.6 and 4.7 pH soil were 27% and 73% lower, respectively, than plant grown in 6.4 pH soil. Plant grown in 3% soil water had significantly lower leaf, stem and root fresh weights than other soil water levels. There was no significant difference in the performance of plants grown in 6, 12 or 18% soil water, suggesting that amaranth plant is adapted to a wide range of soil moisture conditions.

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Cranberry plants exclusively utilize ammonium forms of nitrogen. Nitrification of applied ammonium and subsequent leaching through sandy soils is a potential problem for growers. Peat, sand, and striped soils were collected in cranberry beds in central Wisconsin and soil pH was adjusted to 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5. Twenty-five grams of dry soil was placed in flasks and half the flasks were sterilized. Distilled water was added to half of the samples, and the other half received 15N-labeled ammonium. Flasks were incubated at 20°C for up to 70 days. Striped soils showed no nitrification at pH 3.5 or 4.5 during the 70 day incubation. At pH 5.5, nitrification began at 20 days and was almost complete at 70 days. Nitrification did not occur at any pH in sandy soils. This research suggests that ammonium fertilizer applied to cranberry is likely taken up before nitrification would occur.

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