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Open access

Mary C. Stevens, Rui Yang, and Joshua H. Freeman

such as tomato, pepper, and watermelon require high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation on sandy soils that have low nutrient and water retention capacity. These crops are typically grown in fumigated soil, on plastic mulch; and drip irrigation is used

Free access

B. de los Santos, C. Barrau, C. Blanco, F. Arroyo, M. Porras, J.J. Medina, and F. Romero

support. The field trials and laboratory assays reported herein are part of the national project INIA SC 97-130 on methyl bromide (MB) alternatives to pre-plant soil fumigation in strawberry cultivation.

Open access

Rachel E. Rudolph, Lisa W. DeVetter, Chris Benedict, and Inga A. Zasada

fall), growers remove the posts and trellising wire, mow the old canes, incorporate the old planting material into the soil, and deep-rip to disrupt hard pans. Many growers will then prepare the site for fumigation, fumigate, and/or plant a cover crop

Open access

Mark Hoffmann, Husein A. Ajwa, Becky B. Westerdahl, Steven T. Koike, Mike Stanghellini, Cheryl Wilen, and Steven A. Fennimore

Intensive fruit, ornamental, and vegetable production systems in the United States and elsewhere in the world rely on preplant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pathogens, pests, and weeds. These include strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) and

Free access

Yan Xu, Rachael E. Goodhue, James A. Chalfant, Thomas Miller, and Steven A. Fennimore

feasibility of a nonfumigant treatment is an important consideration when part of a field cannot be fumigated. Leaving buffer zones untreated reduces yields and provides a reservoir for pests and disease, which can spread into treated areas of the field. Soil

Free access

P. Gordon Braun, Keith D. Fuller, Kenneth McRae, and Sherry A.E. Fillmore

suppression. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 1) incorporation of large volumes of hog manure compost; and 2) deep soil loosening with fumigation, the current standard control measure, on root development, tree growth, and yield in a

Free access

Kirk D. Larson and Douglas V. Shaw

Three preplant soil fumigation treatments were applied on 5 Apr. 1993 to a nursery site that had not been planted previously to strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.): 1) a mixture of 67 methyl bromide: 33 chloropicrin (CP) (by weight, 392 kg·ha–1) (MBCP); 2) 140 kg CP/ha; and 3) nonfumigation (NF). On 26 Apr., cold-stored `Chandler' and `Selva' strawberry plants of registered stock were established in each treatment. Soil and root/crown disease symptoms were absent in all treatments during the course of the study. In October, runner plants were machine-harvested and graded to commercial standards. The cultivars produced a similar number of runners per mother plant. Fumigation with MBCP, CP, and NF resulted in 18.56, 15.75, and 7.89 runners per mother plant, respectively. For `Selva', runner root and crown dry weights were similar for the MBCP and CP treatments, but NF resulted in significant reductions compared to the other two treatments. For `Chandler', fumigation with CP resulted in reduced root dry weight, and NF resulted in reduced crown and root dry weights compared to fumigation with MBCP. The results demonstrate the marked decreases in strawberry runner production and runner size that can occur in the absence of preplant soil fumigation, even on new strawberry ground. Also, small, but significant, reductions in runner production and runner size may occur with CP applied at a rate of 140 kg·ha–1 compared to standard fumigation with MBCP. Chemical name used: trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin).

Free access

Kirk D. Larson and Douglas V. Shaw

Performance characteristics for 12 strawberry genotypes (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) from the Univ. of California, Davis, strawberry improvement program were evaluated in annual hill culture, with and without preplant soil fumigation using a mixture of 67 methyl bromide:33 chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) (wt/wt, 392 kg·ha-1). Plants were established at two locations; one trial followed several cycles of strawberry plantation, whereas the other had not been cropped with strawberries for 20 years. Plant mortality was <3% and did not differ between soil treatments; thus, the main effects of fumigation treatment in these experiments were due to sublethal effects of soil organisms. Plants grown in nonfumigated soil produced 51% and 57% of the fruit yield of plants grown in fumigated soil for soils with and without a recent history of strawberry cultivation, respectively. Nonfumigated treatments also had reduced fruit weight and uniformly lower vegetative vigor during the early phases of plantation establishment. Significant genotype x fumigation interactions were not detected for any of the growth or performance traits at either location. Further, the proportion of variance attributable to interactions was at most 25% of that due to variation among genotypes, even for this highly selected population. Genotypic correlations for traits evaluated in different fumigation treatments ranged from 0.80 to 1.00; thus, selection in either soil environment is expected to affect largely the same sets of genes. These results demonstrate that strawberry productivity is substantially increased by fumigation, even in the absence of lethal pathogens or a discernible replant problem. More importantly, there appears to be little opportunity for developing cultivars specifically adapted to sublethal effects of nonfumigated soils.

Open access

C. A. Jaworski, S. C. Phatak, A. W. Johnson, and S. M. McCarter

Abstract

Polyethylene mulched bed widths (28, 56, 84 and 112 cm) with methyl bromide-chloropicrin gas mixture (67-33%, 280 kg/ha) soil fumigation were evaluated in 2 tests for soil pest control and production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). In 2 other tests, methyl bromide-chloropicrin rates of 0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 kg/ha applied under a 112-cm wide mulched bed were evaluated. Populations of root-knot nematodes, parasitic soil fungi, and root-gall indices decreased with increases in mulched bed width. All fumigation rates resulted in decreased populations of root-knot larvae, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and root-gall indices compared with non-fumigated plots. In greenhouse tests, tomato seedlings emerged and survived best in potted soil from mulched plots with the widest bed and those treated with the highest rate of fumigant. Marketable tomato yields increased linearly with increased bed width in 1 test whereas yields were similar among treatments in the other tests.

Open access

S. Dan Goldberg and M. Uzrad

Abstract

In the Arava desert of Israel, a drip-irrigation system was used to fumigate the soil with methyl bromide for weed control prior to seeding tomatoes. Treatments employed were 2 non-fumigated controls, one with and another without plastic covering, and 3 fumigant applied treatments, all with plastic covering but differing in method and time of aeration. Tomato yields and weed control were significantly higher in fumigated soil although within the various methyl bromide treatments weed control results were similar. Testing for uniformity of methyl bromide gas flow revealed considerable differences in residual bromine occurring between the beginning and the end of the drip lateral. By using an inlet pressure of 0.5 – 1.0 atmospheres, minimal pressure drop along the line was achieved.