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Maude Lachapelle, Gaétan Bourgeois, Jennifer R. DeEll, Katrine A. Stewart, and Philippe Séguin

Soggy breakdown is a chilling-related disorder, which in worse cases forms a soft, brown, spongy tissue in the outer apple cortex. It is known to affect the quality of ‘Honeycrisp’ apples, a new variety that is gaining popularity because of its high

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Renae E. Moran, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Dennis P. Murr

‘Honeycrisp’ apples develop the disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown in cold storage, particularly at temperatures below 3 °C ( Watkins et al., 2003 ). Soft scald is a low-temperature disorder that is characterized by sharply defined

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Renae E. Moran

In 2004, prestorage delays and CA storage were compared for occurrence of disorders. Fruit were harvested at a starch index of 5.9. Fruit were exposed to either a 2- or 5-day prestorage delay at 17 °C; or placed immediately into cold storage (control) at 0.5 °C. An additional treatment was CA storage at 2.5 °C. In February, occurrence of soft scald, soggy breakdown, and bitter pit were measured on 40 fruit per replication. Fruit were from `Honeycrisp'/M.26 trees planted in 1994. Treatments were replicated five times with four trees in each replication. Soft scald was very severe in this year, with 84% of control fruit being affected. Two-day prestorage delay reduced it to 48% and 5-day delay to 21%. Soggy breakdown was also severe with 14% of the fruit being affected. Two- and 5-day delays had no effect on occurrence of soggy breakdown, but CA storage increased it to 65%. Bitter pit was very rare and not affected by any of the treatments. These results demonstrate that in severe cases, shorter prestorage delay is not effective in preventing soft scald or soggy breakdown.

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

CI of ‘Honeycrisp’ apple fruit is often manifested as either soft scald, which is characterized by sunken, ribbon-like brown regions of the peel ( Barker, 1938 ; Snowdon, 1990 ), or soggy breakdown, a cortex disorder characterized by similarly

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

flavor characteristics and can remain crisp for at least 6 months in cold storage ( Tong et al., 1999 ). Unfortunately, ‘Honeycrisp’ is also extremely susceptible to the storage disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ; Watkins et al

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Yosef Al Shoffe and Christopher B. Watkins

challenging for storage operators. At low temperatures around 33 °F, the cultivar can develop symptoms of chilling injury (CI) such as soft scald and soggy breakdown, whereas at a higher temperature of 38 °F the fruit can be susceptible to bitter pit

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Christopher B. Watkins, Mustafa Erkan, Jacqueline F. Nock, Kevin A. Iungerman, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Renae E. Moran

`Honeycrisp' is a new apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivar that has been planted extensively in North America, but the storage disorders soggy breakdown and soft scald have resulted in major fruit losses. The effects of harvest date and storage temperature on fruit quality and susceptibility of fruit to these disorders have been investigated in Michigan, New York, and Maine. Internal ethylene concentrations were variable over a wide range of harvest dates, and a rapid increase in autocatalytic ethylene production was not always apparent. The starch pattern index, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness also appear to have limited use as harvest indices. Development of soggy breakdown and soft scald is associated with later harvest dates and storage of fruit at temperatures of 0 to 0.5 °C compared with higher storage temperatures. It is recommended that `Honeycrisp' be stored at 3 °C, although storage disorders still can occur at this temperature if fruit are harvested late. In addition, greasiness development may be worse at higher storage temperatures.

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Terence L. Robinson* and Christopher B. Watkins

In 2001 and 2002, we imposed a wide range of croploads (0-15 fruits/cm2 of TCA) on 4- and 5-year-old Honeycrisp/M.9 trees by manual hand thinning soon after bloom to define appropriate croploads that give adequate repeat bloom and also the best fruit quality. At harvest each year we evaluated fruit ripening and quality. Samples were stored for 5 months in air at 38 °F and 33 °F and evaluated for fruit firmness and storage disorders. Cropload was negatively correlated with tree growth, return bloom, fruit size, fruit red color, fruit sugar content, fruit starch content, fruit firmness, fruit acidity, fruit bitter pit, fruit senescent breakdown, fruit rot and fruit superficial scald, but was positively correlated with leaf blotch symptoms, fruit internal ethylene concentration at harvest, and fruit soggy breakdown. There was a strong effect of cropload on fruit size up to a cropload 7, beyond which there was only a small additional effect. Although there was considerable variation in return bloom, a relatively low cropload was required to obtain adequate return bloom. Fruit red color was reduced only slightly up to a cropload of 8 beyond which it was reduced dramatically. The reduced fruit color and sugar content at high croploads could indicate a delay in maturity of but, fruits from high croploads were also softer, had less starch and greater internal ethylene. It that excessive croploads advance maturity. Overall, croploads greater than 10 resulted in no bloom the next year, and poor fruit size, color and flavor, but these fruits tended to have the least storage disorders. Moderate croploads (7-8) resulted in disappointing return bloom and mediocre fruit quality. For optimum quality and annual cropping, relatively low croploads of 4-5 were necessary.

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins

‘Honeycrisp’ apples can be highly susceptible to the development of low temperature storage disorders such as soft scald (an external injury) and soggy breakdown (an internal injury) ( Lachapelle et al., 2013 , 2017 ; Tong et al., 2003 ; Wargo

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Rachel Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, and Jim Mattheis

Maney, 1924 ). Later in storage, pathogens can infest the affected tissue. Soft scald is often found concomitant with soggy breakdown, a fruit cortex, or flesh, disorder in which regions of brown water–soaked tissue have similarly sharply defined edges