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Ethan T. Parker, J. Scott McElroy and Michael L. Flessner

Smooth crabgrass and goosegrass are problematic weeds in creeping bentgrass in the transition zone, an area that rests between the southern United States where warm-season grasses dominate, and the northern United States where cool-season grasses

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James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden and Patrick E. McCullough

Smooth crabgrass [ Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb) Schreb. ex Muhl.] infestations are common in golf course, athletic field, and landscape turf ( McCarty et al., 2005 ). Smooth crabgrass is similar to large crabgrass ( Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop

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P.H. Demoeden, M.J. Mahoney and M.J. Carroll

Fenoxaprop (0.027, 0.036, and 0.045 kg·ha-1) was field-applied at either of 2-, 3-, or 4-week intervals to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) naturally infested with smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] in Maryland (Easton and Silver Spring) during 1989 and 1990. In 1989, fenoxaprop applied at 2- or 3-week intervals at 0.027 kg·ha-1 provided fair (>74%) to good (>80%) smooth crabgrass control. Fenoxaprop applied at 0.036 or 0.045 kg·ha-1 at 2- or 3week intervals provided good to excellent (> 90%) smooth crabgrass control. Four-week intervals generally provided control that was inferior to the shorter application intervals at Silver Spring but not at Easton. In 1990, all rates provided good to excellent smooth crabgrass control when applied at 2- or 3-week intervals in Easton. At Silver Spring, where smooth crabgrass levels were very high, >88% control was provided by 0.036 kg·ha-1 applied at a 2-week interval and by 0.045 kg·ha-1 applied at either a 2- or 3-week interval. Chemical name used: [±]-2-[4-[(6 chloro-2 benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoic acid (fenoxaprop).

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Peter H. Dernoeden, Cale A. Bigelow, John E. Kaminski and John M. Krouse

Smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreber) Schreber ex Muhlenb.] is an invasive weed of cool-season turfgrasses. Previous research has demonstrated that quinclorac is an effective postemergence herbicide for crabgrass control, but performance has been erratic in some regions. Furthermore, quinclorac may elicit objectionable levels of discoloration in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). The objectives of this 3-year field study were to determine optimum rates and timings of quinclorac applications that provide consistent levels of effective crabgrass control and to assess creeping bentgrass quality responses to quinclorac. To evaluate crabgrass control, quinclorac was applied in early-, mid- and late-postemergence timings at various rates to a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) turf. Similar treatments were applied to creeping bentgrass to determine if application timing and rate influenced the level and duration of discoloration. Quinclorac was applied alone or was tank-mixed with either urea (N at 6.1 kg·ha-1) or chelated iron (Fe)+nitrogen (N) (FeSO4 at 1.1 kg·ha-1+N at 2.2 kg·ha-1) to determine if they would mask discoloration. Crabgrass control generally was more effective in the early- and midpostemergence application timings. A single application of quinclorac (0.84 kg·ha-1) was effective where crabgrass levels were moderate, but sequential (i.e. multiple) applications were required where crabgrass levels were severe. The most consistent level of crabgrass control where weed pressure was severe occurred with three, sequential quinclorac (0.37 or 0.42 kg·ha-1) applications. Creeping bentgrass exhibited 2 to 11 weeks of unacceptable discoloration in response to sequential quinclorac applications. Chelated Fe+N was more effective than urea in masking discoloration. In general, chelated Fe+N tank-mixed with quinclorac masked discoloration and turf had quality equivalent to untreated bentgrass on most, but not all rating dates. Chemical names used: 3,7,-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Kenneth Cropper, Gregg Munshaw and Michael Barrett

Smooth crabgrass ( Digitaria ischaemum ) is a common summer annual weed found throughout much of the United States. Its long leaves and prostrate growth give it the potential to become a serious problem in both closely mowed areas such as greens or

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Katie J. Kammler, S. Alan Walters and Bryan G. Young

( Setaria faberi Herrm.), redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and stinkgrass [ Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen], were detected at low densities compared with large and smooth crabgrass. Crabgrass species control was visually

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor and James W. Shrefler

initial applications, smooth crabgrass was 8 to 15 cm tall, cutleaf groundcherry was 5 to 8 cm tall, and spiny amaranth was 5 to 8 cm tall. Smooth crabgrass represented 60% of the weed cover, whereas cutleaf groundcherry and spiny amaranth represented 36

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor and James W. Shrefler

applications. At the time of initial applications, smooth crabgrass was 8 to 10 cm tall, cutleaf groundcherry was 5 cm tall, spiny amaranth was 8 to 10 cm tall, and yellow nutsedge was 10 to 15 cm tall. Smooth crabgrass represented 60% of the weed cover, while

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P.H. Dernoeden and M.A. Fidanza

Fenoxaprop is used on turfgrasses to control smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Sweib.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] and other annual grass weeds. Our objective was to determine if a broadleaf weed herbicide (BWH = 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba) would affect fenoxaprop activity. The BWH was applied several days or weeks before and after fenoxaprop was applied. Smooth crabgrass control by fenoxaprop was reduced significantly when the BWH was applied ≤14 days before fenoxaprop was applied. Extremely poor crabgrass control occurred when fenoxaprop was tank-mixed with the BWH. There was no reduction in crabgrass control when the BWH was applied 21 days before or ≥3 days after fenoxaprop. Chemical names used: ethyl ester of (±)-2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fenoxaprop); 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D); (+)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop); 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba).

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R.J. Cooper, P.C. Bhowmik and L.A. Spokas

Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of five widely used Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars (Adelphi, Baron, Bensun, Merion, and Touchdown) to preemergence applications of the herbicide pendimethalin. Pendimethalin applied during 2 years at 1.7 or 3.4 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] effectively without injury to turf. Pendimethalin at 3.4 kg·ha-1 resulted in a short-term suppression of root growth immediately following application in the first year of the study. The reduction was transitory and subsequent rooting and rhizome growth were unaffected by pendimethalin. Cultivar × pendimethalin level interactions were not significant during the study. Thus, the herbicide appears to be a safe, effective preemergence material for crabgrass control in Kentucky bluegrass turf. Chemical name used: N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).