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environmental impacts, including ozone depletion, smog, acidification, eutrophication, carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic human toxicity, respiratory effects, ecotoxicity, and fossil fuel depletion [ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2008 ]. These are

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Abstract

The formation of ozone in Los Angeles type (photochemical) smog was recognized by Haagen-Smit et al (1) in 1952. It soon became apparent that this compound could cause plant lesions identical to those which were seen on economic crops growing in many areas of the Los Angeles Basin. A “stipple” of grape leaves which occurred in midsummer in the field and which became progressively more severe with the season, was shown by Richards et al (4) to be very similar to lesions produced by ozone fumigation. Additional work with conifers (5) showed that a severe needle mottle of Pinus ponderosa and related species was caused by ozone in photochemical smog. Peroxy-acyl nitrates and oxides of nitrogen axe present in this mixture and are toxic to plants, but the separate effects of these pollutants have not been studied on grapes in detail.

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Community involvement is critical for the continued vitality of the urban forest. To encourage this involvement, an understanding is needed of what promotes shared stewardship as well as of different cultural perspectives regarding trees. A survey of the general public in 109 large metropolitan areas across the continental U.S., a culturally and ethnically diverse group, was conducted. Two thousand adults were surveyed to assess the extent of their childhood experiences with nature, their current attitudes toward urban forests, and their demographic backgrounds. Respondents were questioned particularly about their earliest experiences with nature and their current understanding and appreciation of the urban forest. Other researchers have examined the relationship between childhood contact with nature and attitudes toward nature among professionals in environmental fields, but this relationship has not been explored in the general public. Correlations between survey respondents' memories of childhood contact with nature, their current perceptions of the urban forest, and the influence of their cultural and ethnic backgrounds will be presented. For example, respondents who reported very easy access to nature as children were likely to agree strongly that trees should be planted in business districts to reduce smog. Results from this survey may be applied in programs to teach children about trees and gardening, thus better tailoring these programs to engender future appreciation for the urban forest. Raw data from this survey will be made available to other researchers.

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Abstract

The importance of monitoring air pollutants has been dramatically emphasized by the occurrence of killer smogs in major cities throughout the world. However, many other valid reasons exist for monitoring air pollutants. Nearly 40 years ago the United States and Canada were entangled in an air pollution controversy which emphasized that air pollutants ignore national boundaries. There is nothing to stop the estimated 264 million tons of air pollutants discharged annually in the United States from wandering over neighboring borders. Such a trip is even facilitated by the fact that almost 90% of this air pollution is invisible. As horticulturists, we are most concerned about air pollution effects on plants. Crop losses in the United States due to air pollution amount to approximately 500 million dollars annually. Some of this damage may come from pollutants generated outside the United States. However, air pollutants generated in the United States have been responsible on several occasions for crop damage in Canada. Scandinavian and other countries sharing common borders often share their air pollutants just as North Americans do. Fifteen years ago a World Health Organization publication indicated that sampling, analysis, and instrumentation in the field of air pollution monitoring was in a state of chaos. This symposium will show that out of the chaos has come order and that the science of monitoring air pollutants has become quite sophisticated and most complex, though many problems still remain to be solved. As an example, during the past year a disagreement on how to measure air pollution in California was reported on prime time television in the United States. Problems such as this are discouraging and most unfortunate. Nonetheless, they illustrate the heart of the air pollutant monitoring problem, which is that man has become biologically obsolete in sensing pollution hazards and we must develop new and more accurate methods and sensitive instruments to detect these hazards for ourselves, our animals, and our plants if life is to survive.

Open Access

( Fujiwara and Fujii, 2002 ). Ozone (O 3 ) is a triatomic allotrope of oxygen most commonly associated with interception of high-energy ultraviolet radiation in the Earth's stratosphere or as a component of photochemical smog, a significant tropospheric

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irrigation solutions as ozone (gas) phytotoxicity is well established ( Ashmore, 2005 ). Tropospheric ozone enrichment (photochemical smog) elicits phytotoxic reactions in a wide array of plant species over a range of concentrations ( Bell and Treshow, 2002

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, is one of the most powerful naturally occurring oxidants ( Maroni et al., 1995 ; Mustafa, 1990 ). It is considered a secondary ambient pollutant and one of the components of tropospheric smog, which can adversely affect human health and property

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children can breathe easier. Little Brown, New York Elsom, D. 1996 Smog alert: Managing urban air quality. Earthscan, London Labor Market and Career Information Department of the Texas Workforce Comission 2006 Metropolitan Statistical Area and Composite

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, smog-filled cities, and global warming. Investment in alternative renewable forms of energy, such as from biomass other than corn could reduce the conflict between the crop as food or energy. One such crop is the sweetpotato, which is high in dry matter

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