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Chad Finn, Joseph Postman, and Maxine Thompson

51 POSTER SESSION 2A (Abstr. 068–084) Breeding & Genetics—Fruits/Nuts, Small Fruit/Viticulture

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Kathleen Demchak

High tunnel usage for small fruit crops In the past, protected culture including use of high tunnels was used to a great extent in other countries, and to a lesser extent in the United States ( Hancock and Simpson, 1995 ; Wittwer and Castilla, 1995

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Hisayo Yamane, Megumi Ichiki, Ryutaro Tao, Tomoya Esumi, Keizo Yonemori, Takeshi Niikawa, and Hino Motosugi

Fruit size is one of the most important traits that affect the economic value of fruit. Although fruit size is controlled by both environmental and genetic factors, the latter have the greatest impact, because small genetic changes can

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John R. Stommel

; Pandolfini et al., 2009 ). Small/miniature sweet peppers are a rapidly growing class of specialty peppers ( Burfield, 2016 ). The peppers are popular among consumers because of their versatility, snackability, vibrant red, orange and yellow mature fruit

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Michele Renee Warmund, Patrick Guinan, and Gina Fernandez

Services (2007) estimated that the loss for agricultural crops after the freeze was $112 million with fruit crop losses of $86 million (D. Hamrick, personal communication). In Missouri, which has a relatively small commercial fruit industry, the economic

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E.B. Poling

Working on the basic idea that the small fruit industries in Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and other states in the south have a great deal of growth potential, especially in strawberries, the Southern Region Small Fruit Center is now becoming a very focused collaboration between several land-grant institutions to develop a virtual small fruit center web site that will serve to keep specialists, agents, growers, and students well informed on the latest small fruit research and technical findings. It would also give instant access to a variety of small fruit extension publications, budgets, and crop advisories. The site, www.smallfruits.org, opened on 17 Sept. 1999, and was immediately utilized after Hurricane Floyd “hit” to post a series of berry info advisories on specific postplant management strategies to minimize further yield losses due to the extra week of delayed planting caused by Floyd's flooding. The main benefit of regional or multistate institutional approach is that it gives us the “extra horsepower” for tackling some fairly ambitious projects, like the creation of a virtual small fruit center. Recently, the center has begun to offer more in-depth regional training courses for agents and growers, such as the “Extension Strawberry Plasticulture” short course that was conducted on North Carolina State Centennial Campus, 1-5 Nov. 1999. We currently have a “critical mass” of some of the best small fruit research and extension workers you will find anywhere across the whole southern region, and by working together we can develop stronger, more economically viable small fruit industries.

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P. Perkins-Veazie

35 WORKSHOP 3 (Abstr. 674-677) Horticultural Aspects of Phytochemicals in Small Fruits Monday, 24 July, 10:00 a.m.-12:00 noon

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Marvin P. Pritts

Manipulating light, temperature, moisture, and nutrients to favor plant growth and productivity is an important component of horticulture. The technology required to achieve such manipulation ranges from inexpensive, basic practices to elaborate, costly approaches involving the latest engineering advances. For example, pruning and mulching are relatively low-tech methods for improving light interception and soil moisture status in small fruit plantings. At the opposite extreme are glass houses with supplemental lighting, CO2 enrichment, and nutrient film hydroponic systems Of greatest value to small fruit growers, however, is technology that ran be applied in field situations, such as the use of overhead irrigation for maintaining soil moisture status, frost protection, and evaporative cooling. One of the greatest challenges to small fruit growers and rcsearchers is integrating new technology into production systems. The introduction of a new technique for environmental modification usually has indirect effects on other aspects of management, which may require additional technology to compensate for adverse changes while maintaining the favorable change. In addition, unique macro- and microclimates demand and market opportunities, specific solutions, and the result is a dynamic, diverse collage of production systems used by growers throughout the world.

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Lidia Lozano, Ignasi Iglesias, Diego Micheletti, Michela Troggio, Satish Kumar, Richard K. Volz, Andrew C. Allan, David Chagné, and Susan E. Gardiner

markers for phenotypic prediction is especially attractive for long-lived woody crop plants, where characters related to fruiting are often expressed several years after crossing, the cost of raising plants in research orchards is high, and where some

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Roisin McGarry, Jocelyn A. Ozga, and Dennis M. Reinecke

Fruit growth in saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.), an emerging horticultural crop across the Canadian prairies, results from development of the mesocarp and the endocarp-locular-ovular structure which includes the developing seeds. Contribution of these tissues to fruit size was assessed using transverse sections of ovaries sampled at six developmental stages among large- and small-fruited cultivars. Mesocarp development was similar among the larger-fruited cultivars (Thiessen, Northline, and Smoky); the number of cells increased rapidly through Stage I [162 to 293 growing degree days (GDDs)] of fruit growth, and cell number increase was minimal during Stages II (293 to 577 GDDs) and III (577 to 747 GDDs). In `Regent' fruit (a small-fruited cultivar), the maximal rate of cell division was delayed until Stage II and the mesocarp contained fewer cells than the larger-fruited cultivars at harvest maturity. Mesocarp cell enlargement was similar among all of the cultivars studied where cell expansion was maximal during Stage I and continued at a slower rate during Stages II and III. The area of the endocarp-locular-ovular structure was greatest for `Thiessen' and `Northline', midrange for `Smoky', and smallest for `Regent'. Data suggest that a minimum number of mesocarp cells early in fruit development is required to attain maximal mesocarp size, and that differences in cultivar fruit size are a function of both the mesocarp and the endocarp-locular-ovular structure.