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Abstract

Strawberries, Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cv. Tufts, were packaged in 3 different consumer units and evaluated following storage at simulated air-freight time/temperature conditions during shipment to Western Europe. Berries in a rigid plastic basket with solid plastic cover lost significantly less weight than those stored in mesh plastic baskets with and without covers. There were no significant differences in pulp firmness among the packaging treatments. For all treatments, there was less berry deterioration after storage for 48 hours than for 72 hours at both 1.1° and 4.4°C, but in all units a high percentage of berries developed serious expressions of bruising during storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Silver thiosulfate (STS) foliar sprays applied 1 and 4 weeks prior to simulated shipping reduced corolla abscission of Streptocarpus × hybridus Voss. Spray concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm were all effective in reducing corolla abscission when appropriately timed. Sprays applied 24 hr prior to shipping caused necrotic lesions on the flowers and foliage and proved harmful in the warm, humid environment used in simulated shipping. A combination treatment with STS (2 mm) sprayed 4 weeks and again 24 hr prior to shipping showed the 4-week spray treatment to precondition the plants thereby preventing injurious effects by the 24 hr treatment and decreasing corolla abscission 46.6%. STS folair sprays applied one week prior to shipping at 0.5 him and 1.0 mm prevented corolla abscission with 0% corolla abscission after simulated shipping.

Open Access

Abstract

High temperatures during simulated shipping were more consistently injurious to ‘Merion’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod than other factors tested. Sod produced with increasing amounts of nitrogen had increased rates of temperature rise. Higher nitrogen levels also increased respiration, percent leaf kill, and ethylene production. There was no consistent effect of 6-benzylamino purine (BA) on sod storage life. Mowing to 2 cm prior to harvest reduced the amount of living tissue, causing lower temperatures, lower respiration rates, and less sod injury. Root production after sod transplanting was greatest from sod grown with 0 and 100 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilization and decreased with higher nitrogen rates.

Open Access

Abstract

Geranium seedlings were exposed to various levels of ethylene (0–10 µl/liter air) at 23°C for 2 and 5 days in light. Seedlings held in ethylene for 2 days developed more chlorotic leaves and did not grow as well as seedlings held in air. Seedlings exposed to ethylene for 5 days abscised leaves, whereas those exposed for 2 days did not. Seedlings exposed to ethylene (1 µl/liter air) at 23° for 3 days in dark had more chlorotic leaves and did not grow as well as seedlings exposed to ethylene in light. Seedlings held in air in darkness had more chlorotic leaves than seedlings held in air in light. Seedlings held in air in the laboratory grew as well as seedlings held in the greenhouse. Seedlings exposed to ethylene (1 µl/liter air) for 3 days in dark retained more chlorophyll and had better growth at low temperatures (4.5°, 10°) than those exposed at higher temperatures (15.5°, 23°). Seedlings held in air at all temperatures for 3 days had similar chlorophyll levels and growth patterns. Temperature was negatively correlated with loss of chlorophyll and plant dry weight and positively correlated with number of chlorotic leaves of seedling held in darkness for 7 days.

Open Access

durations. Nell and Barrett (1986) simulated shipping of ‘Gutbier V-10 Amy’ poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima ) at 4, 16, or 24 °C for 1, 4, or 7 d. After shipping, plants were placed in a simulated interior at 21 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), and 20

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distribution temperature), and removed to 22 °C for 2 d (simulated retail conditions). Gas analyses. For the storage temperature experiment (2007), respiration and ethylene production rates were analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) (GC-14B; Shimadzu, Kyoto

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transferred to a 25/20 °C phytotron and Venlo greenhouse for flowering (as mentioned in the experimental process), and the shelf life was observed as previously described. Expt. 2: Effects of temperature during simulated dark shipping on the post-shipping

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Abstract

Pot roses (Rosa hyb. cvs. Pink and Orange Margo Koster and Red Garnette) were sprayed with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 6-(benzylamino)-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-9H-purine (PBA) prior to simulated truck shipment which lasted 5 or 6 days to study the effect on flower bud and leaf abscision and on leaf senescence. “Shipment” under refrigerated conditions (1-3°C) prevented bud and leaf abscission. ‘Red Garnette’ and ‘Orange Margo Koster’ had little or no bud and leaf abscission even at a warm “shipping” temperature (20-22°C); however, ‘Pink Margo Koster’ was severely affected. Observations under “home conditions” for 10 days after this warm “shipping temperature” revealed that all 3 cultivars had severe leaf senescence. NAA spray (15 and 30 ppm) severely accelerated leaf abscission and senescence. NAA prevented bud drop, but the buds did not open. PBA (50 ppm) greatly reduced leaf abscission both during “shipment” and in “home conditions”. PBA also prevented bud drop and flowers subsequently opened normally.

Open Access

Abstract

Seedlings of Dizygotheca elegantissima (Hort. Veitch) R. Vig & Guillaum (false aralia) were grown for 90 days under maximum, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 797 or 278 μmol s−1m−2 and then treated with 2 pesticides (diazinon or dicofol) in 2 formulations [emulsifiable concentrate (EC) or wettable powder (WP)]. Plants were sleeved, held under simulated shipping conditions for 5 days at 22° ± 1°C, followed by simulated foliage plant warehouse conditions for 10 days at 20° ± 1°. Root and shoot quality ratings were 2-fold better at 278 than 797 μmol s−1m−2 PAR. Light compensation points (LCP) and percentage of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were lower while root TNC levels were higher in plants grown under 278 than 797 μmol s−1m−2 PAR. The percentage of leaf abscission ratio of 278 and 797 μmol s−1m−2 PAR plants was similar to their LCP ratio. Plants had higher tissue levels of N, P, and K and lower levels of Mg and Ca grown at 278 than 797 μmol s−1m−2 PAR. Canopy width of dicofol WP-treated plants grown under 797 μmol s−1m−2 PAR decreased during simulated shipping and warehousing. Pesticide effects on other measurements were not detected.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Gutbier V-10 Amy’ (‘Amy’) poinsettia lost more leaves and cyathia after simulated shipping at different temperatures (4°, 16°, or 24°C) and 30 days under interior conditions than ‘Annette Hegg Dark Red’ (‘AHDR’) plants. ‘Amy’ and ‘AHDR’ plants lost a large number of leaves when shipped for more than 4 days at 24°. ‘Amy’ quality was reduced when shipped at 4° due to chilling injury (white lesions on bracts). Bracts less than 2.5 cm long were most sensitive to this injury.

Open Access