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affecting horticultural crops. To our knowledge, the antibacterial activity of silver maple ( Acer saccharinum L.), a species often used as ornamental crop frequently encountered in the eastern United States and eastern Canada ( Gabriel, 1990 ) generating

Open Access

Silver maple has great potential as a biomass feedstock. We compared three clones from each of seven provenances located on east to west and north to south transects across the natural range of silver maple and one red maple. DNA extracted by a modification of the CTAB technique (Murray and Thompson, 1980) was not suitable for RAPD analysis. Using this technique, polymorphism was either not reproducible or there was poor amplification for some clones. A new DNA extraction technique using PVPP, chloroform, and cesium chloride was tested (a modification of Yoon et al., 1991). this method yielded DNA that was more suitable for PCR amplification. Both RAPD and DAF (Caetano-Anolles and Gresshoff, 1994) methods were used for amplification. Polymorphism was detected among and within provenances. DAF was more efficient than RAPDs for determination of the genetic relationship among silver maple clones.

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Several commercially available Acer saccharinum and A. negundo taxa were established with 10 single-plant replications in a cultivar trial at the TSU–NCRS in 1993 and 1994. Each plant was fertilized in spring and early summer with 100 gm 15–15–15 beginning Summer 1993. Drip irrigation was applied as needed beginning Summer 1993. Vegetation within tree rows was controlled with preemergent and postemergent herbicides, while grassed middles were mowed. Growth data were recorded in Fall 1993 and 1994 and height and caliper increment calculated for the 1994 season. In the silver maple group with most height growth were: `Silver Queen', `Skinneri', and `Silver Pyramid'. These differed significantly from a group of four slower growing cultivars. Cultivars with the most height growth also had the most caliper growth. Seedling boxelder grew faster than one accession of `Flamingo', while three other cultivars were intermediate. Data will also be presented on insect and disease ratings.

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Silver maple has great potential as a biomass feedstock. We selected 21 elite silver maple clones representing 7 provenances located on east to west and north to south transects across the natural area of distribution. In addition five different red maples including one commercial cultivar as well as four interspecific hybrids between red and silver maple were compared to the silver maples. DNA was extracted using a modification of the CTAB technique (Murray and Thompson, 1980). Polymerase chain reaction was used with random primers from the OPF series (1-20) and primers used by Krahl et al. (1993). Polymorphism was detected at high frequency. Greater polymorphism was observed between species than within species. However, we have observed DNA concentration dependent polymorphism. RAPD technology has potential for determination of genetic relationship among silver maple clones.

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Freeman maples (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) are suspected to be more resistant to environmental stress than red maples (A. rubrum L.) because the lineage of Freeman maple includes silver maple (A. saccharinum L.). Little is known, however, about stress resistance of silver maple, and few data from direct comparisons of red and Freeman maples are available. Our objectives were to determine effects of root-zone heat on silver maples from northern and southern provenances, and to compare red and Freeman maple cultivars for resistance to rootzone heat stress and drought. There were no provenance-by-temperature interactions when silver maples from 33.3°N (Mississippi) and 44.4°N (Minnesota) latitude were grown with root zones at 29 and 35°C. Plants from 44.4°N latitude had 36% higher fresh mass, 43% more leaf surface area, and 35% and 59% higher, respectively, root and shoot dry masses than plants from 33.3°N latitude. Midday xylem water potential was 68% more negative for plants at 35°C than for plants at 29°C, and transpiration rate was 129% less for plants with root zones at 35°C than for those with root zones at 29°C. During preliminary work with Autumn Flame and Franksred red maple and Indian Summer and Jeffersred Freeman maples, rooted cuttings were grown in 25 and 37°C root zones under both drought and nondrought conditions. Reductions in growth at 37°C were similar for all cultivars. Results of this work could influence development, marketing, and use of Freeman maples.

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Abstract

Columns of discolored and decayed wood associated with 42 wounds in silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were examined with a pulsed-current resistance meter (Shigometer) prior to dissection. Resistance measurements, expressed as a percentage of control readings, were correlated to depth, cross-sectional areas, and calculated volume of the discolored and decayed wood column. The instrument accurately detected the presence and depth of discolored wood. Relative decay volume could be established in a nondestructive manner.

Open Access

, Wilmington, Del., for providing the thidiazuron, and Ibrahima Bocoum and George Brown for assistance with the adult maples. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore

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During 1987, we selected the six fastest-growing seedlings or clones from each of 15 provenances that represented the natural distribution range of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). Shoots from all 90 trees were cut into nodal segments, rooted as cuttings, and maintained as clonal stock plants in the greenhouse. Rooting was generally excellent and more than half of the clones rooted ≥90%. At the same time, explants were obtained from these field-grown trees and many were established in vitro as aseptic cultures by first pretreating with benomyl and rifampicin. Single-node explants from the greenhouse-grown clonal stock plants were also established and multiplied in vitro. There was a significant effect of clone within provenance on all in vitro growth characteristics. All clones proliferated axillary shoots, but not all at the same rates. Although statistically significant, low correlation coefficients indicated that micropropagation results were not good predictors of nursery performance of the populations from which the clones were selected, nor of the climatic conditions at the site of origin of the trees. The micropropagation system reported herein, therefore, should be applicable to a wide variety of silver maple genotypes. Chemical name used: methyl [1-[butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate(benomyl).

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Whole-tree branch architecture was quantified by counting and measuring the lengths of main stems, basal branches, and all primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°) branches. Trees were grown in replicated clonal plantations established in 1991 on a southern Illinois lowland and an upland site. Fifty-two clones in each of five complete blocks were measured from each plantation. Number of primary branches that formed in 1991, 1992, and 1993, and the number of nodes in the terminal meter of growth were highly significant for silver maple provenance and for clones (four clones for each of 13 provenances), except that clonal differences were nonsignificant for the number of 1° branches on 1991 wood. There were significant effects of provenance and clone on total number and the various sizes of 2° and 3° branches. Generally, a greater number and longer length of 2° and 3° branches formed on trees from the more rapidly growing southern provenances.

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Abstract

Chlorotic silver maples (Acer saccharinum L.) were treated during bud break with soil-applied EDDHA (ethylenediaminedi-0-hydroxyphenylacetate) and trunk implants of encapsulated FAC (ferric ammonium citrate), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetracetate) and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate). Foliar levels of Ca were higher in chlorotic than green tissue. Chlorophyll levels and twig growth of treated trees were not significantly different from chlorotic controls after treatment. Soil Fe levels were different under chlorotic and green control plants. However, foliar Fe analyses demonstrated that Fe levels were not different in green and chlorotic leaf tissue.

Open Access