Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 61 items for :

  • silver maple x
Clear All

affecting horticultural crops. To our knowledge, the antibacterial activity of silver maple ( Acer saccharinum L.), a species often used as ornamental crop frequently encountered in the eastern United States and eastern Canada ( Gabriel, 1990 ) generating

Open Access

Silver maple has great potential as a biomass feedstock. We selected 21 elite silver maple clones representing 7 provenances located on east to west and north to south transects across the natural area of distribution. In addition five different red maples including one commercial cultivar as well as four interspecific hybrids between red and silver maple were compared to the silver maples. DNA was extracted using a modification of the CTAB technique (Murray and Thompson, 1980). Polymerase chain reaction was used with random primers from the OPF series (1-20) and primers used by Krahl et al. (1993). Polymorphism was detected at high frequency. Greater polymorphism was observed between species than within species. However, we have observed DNA concentration dependent polymorphism. RAPD technology has potential for determination of genetic relationship among silver maple clones.

Free access

Freeman maples (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) are suspected to be more resistant to environmental stress than red maples (A. rubrum L.) because the lineage of Freeman maple includes silver maple (A. saccharinum L.). Little is known, however, about stress resistance of silver maple, and few data from direct comparisons of red and Freeman maples are available. Our objectives were to determine effects of root-zone heat on silver maples from northern and southern provenances, and to compare red and Freeman maple cultivars for resistance to rootzone heat stress and drought. There were no provenance-by-temperature interactions when silver maples from 33.3°N (Mississippi) and 44.4°N (Minnesota) latitude were grown with root zones at 29 and 35°C. Plants from 44.4°N latitude had 36% higher fresh mass, 43% more leaf surface area, and 35% and 59% higher, respectively, root and shoot dry masses than plants from 33.3°N latitude. Midday xylem water potential was 68% more negative for plants at 35°C than for plants at 29°C, and transpiration rate was 129% less for plants with root zones at 35°C than for those with root zones at 29°C. During preliminary work with Autumn Flame and Franksred red maple and Indian Summer and Jeffersred Freeman maples, rooted cuttings were grown in 25 and 37°C root zones under both drought and nondrought conditions. Reductions in growth at 37°C were similar for all cultivars. Results of this work could influence development, marketing, and use of Freeman maples.

Free access

Abstract

Columns of discolored and decayed wood associated with 42 wounds in silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were examined with a pulsed-current resistance meter (Shigometer) prior to dissection. Resistance measurements, expressed as a percentage of control readings, were correlated to depth, cross-sectional areas, and calculated volume of the discolored and decayed wood column. The instrument accurately detected the presence and depth of discolored wood. Relative decay volume could be established in a nondestructive manner.

Open Access

, Wilmington, Del., for providing the thidiazuron, and Ibrahima Bocoum and George Brown for assistance with the adult maples. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore

Free access

During 1987, we selected the six fastest-growing seedlings or clones from each of 15 provenances that represented the natural distribution range of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). Shoots from all 90 trees were cut into nodal segments, rooted as cuttings, and maintained as clonal stock plants in the greenhouse. Rooting was generally excellent and more than half of the clones rooted ≥90%. At the same time, explants were obtained from these field-grown trees and many were established in vitro as aseptic cultures by first pretreating with benomyl and rifampicin. Single-node explants from the greenhouse-grown clonal stock plants were also established and multiplied in vitro. There was a significant effect of clone within provenance on all in vitro growth characteristics. All clones proliferated axillary shoots, but not all at the same rates. Although statistically significant, low correlation coefficients indicated that micropropagation results were not good predictors of nursery performance of the populations from which the clones were selected, nor of the climatic conditions at the site of origin of the trees. The micropropagation system reported herein, therefore, should be applicable to a wide variety of silver maple genotypes. Chemical name used: methyl [1-[butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate(benomyl).

Free access

Abstract

Chlorotic silver maples (Acer saccharinum L.) were treated during bud break with soil-applied EDDHA (ethylenediaminedi-0-hydroxyphenylacetate) and trunk implants of encapsulated FAC (ferric ammonium citrate), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetracetate) and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate). Foliar levels of Ca were higher in chlorotic than green tissue. Chlorophyll levels and twig growth of treated trees were not significantly different from chlorotic controls after treatment. Soil Fe levels were different under chlorotic and green control plants. However, foliar Fe analyses demonstrated that Fe levels were not different in green and chlorotic leaf tissue.

Open Access

Along with its horticultural uses, silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be grown for biomass in areas that vary greatly in annual rainfall and temperature. Silver maples from five provenances ranging from 33 to 46° N latitude were subjected to drought stress and to high root-zone temperature (RZT) in separate experiments to assess their suitability as biomass sources. In the drought experiment, control plants were irrigated every 2 days, while stressed plants were irrigated every 15 days. Initial results indicated provenance differences among control plants in dry mass, leaf area, and transpiration. Drought reduced growth and mitigated differences among provenances. Osmotic potential of leaves was higher in control plants than in drought-stressed plants. Plants from two provenances (33 and 44° N) were grown with RZT of 24 and 34 C for 3 weeks. Gain in fresh mass over time was reduced at 34 C for plants of both origins, but plant dry matter and leaf surface area were similar at the two RZT. Data collected to date suggest resistance to drought and high RZT is similar in plants of different provenances.

Free access

Information on the heat resistance of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) could help develop stress-resistant Freeman maples (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray). Our first objective was to determine how 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36 °C in the root zone affect growth and water relations of plants from rooted cuttings of a silver maple clone indigenous to Mississippi (33.3 °N latitude). Fresh mass increased over time for plants at all temperatures and was highest for plants with root zones at 30 °C. Quadratic regression functions predicted maximal plant dry mass, leaf surface area, and stomatal conductance at 29, 29, and 28 °C, respectively. Stem xylem water potential (ψ) during the photoperiod decreased linearly with increasing root-zone temperature from -0.83 MPa at 26 °C to -1.05 MPa at 36 °C. Our second objective was to compare six clones of silver maple from the Mississippi location with six clones from 44.4 °N latitude in Minnesota for effects of 35 °C in the root zone on plant growth, stomatal conductance, and stem ψ. Provenance and temperature main effects were significant for most dependent variables, but there were no provenance × temperature interactions. Over both provenances, plant fresh and dry mass, leaf surface area, stomatal conductance, and stem ψ during the photoperiod were higher at 29 than 35 °C. Over both temperatures, plants from Minnesota clones had higher fresh and dry mass and more leaf surface area than plants from Mississippi clones. The lack of temperature × provenance interactions suggests that ecotypic or clinal variation in heat resistance is minimal and will not be useful for identifying superior genotypes for use in interspecific crosses with red maple (Acer rubrum L.).

Free access

Sixty clones (four clones from each of 15 provenances) were micropropagated and planted in replicated plots in lowland and upland sites in Carbondale, IL in 1991. Data were collected on tree growth, including basal caliper, height, branching, crown volume, dates of bud break, bud set, and leaf fall. There were significant and strong positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations between tree height and basal caliper throughout the three years of growth. During 1993, bud break was not significantly correlated with any growth parameters. After three years in the field, tree height was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of callus that had formed after one month during the in vitro micropropagation phase. However, all shoots that formed in vitro were of axillary origin.

Free access