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Lisa E. Richardson-Calfee, J. Roger Harris, and Jody K. Fanelli

Growth periodicity is generally conceived as a set pattern of growth incited by internal factors and influenced by environmental conditions ( Morrow, 1950 ). The inherent alternation between periods of abundant root and shoot growth and little or

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Jesús Gallegos, Juan E. Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

) found significant differences in root growth, whereas there was no clear effect on shoot growth. Rune (2003) found different results in Scots pine depending on the applied fertilization; using containers with vertical ribs promoted better root growth

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Anita Solar, Jerneja Jakopič, Robert Veberič, and Franci Štampar

“cut on a head” each year to obtain new vigorous shoots for scions. Rejuvenated shoots usually consist of two growth units. The first one builds up during the spring growth flush and the second during the summer growth flush. Medium vigorous annual

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Frederic B. Ouedraogo, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, and Charles T. Rohla

will start production earlier. Both the root system and the shoot system work jointly to satisfy the resource need of the plant and thus promote growth and stimulate development ( Puig et al., 2012 ; Su et al., 2011 ). The root system ensures the

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Junyang Song

bridge connecting material exchange between the soil and plant shoot. A strong root system is important to ensure the proper growth and development of the shoot. Most studies have focused only on shoots rather than roots due to difficulties in research

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Haijun Zhu and Eric T. Stafne

, 1970 ). It is also the most common characteristic observed by growers, who associate it with tree vigor and nutrition. There can be a large variation in shoot growth on the same tree or different trees. Old trees tend to produce short shoots while young

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Hye-Ji Kim and Xinxin Li

for an optimum plant growth and the implications of such a baseline without interference with other factors. The effects of P on root growth and root-to-shoot ratio present conflicting results among the studies on container crops. According to Harris

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Anish Malladi and Jacqueline K. Burns

roots to shoots. COMMUNICATING CHANGES IN PHOTOPERIOD—TUBERIZATION In photoperiod-sensitive plants, changes in daylength and temperature initiate striking alterations in growth and development. Tuberization in cultivated potato is strongly

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Dilma Daniela Silva, Michael E. Kane, and Richard C. Beeson Jr.

et al., 1996 ). Water limitations are commonly thought to trigger an adaptive response in plants to avoid water stress by promoting greater relative carbon allocation to root growth, which ultimately would result in higher root-to-shoot ratio and

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Paula M. Gross and Stephen C. Myers

One-year old fruiting shoots averaging 50 cm in length were tagged according to naturally-occurring orientations ranging from vertical to horizontal throughout the canopies of dormant `Encore' peach (Prunus persica L Batsch) trees. Following fruit set, tagged shoots were thinned to two or three fruit per shoot. Fruit diameter, terminal shoot extension, and shoot orientation were measured at intervals throughout the season. Fruit were harvested at uniform maturity based on ground color for assessment of fresh weight, diameter, percent red blush, and red color intensity. A linear relationship (p=.001) was found between final fruit size and initial orientation, with fruit diameters 6 percent larger on shoots initially oriented horizontally than those initially vertical. Fruit size differences were not detected until the last two to three weeks of growth. Fruit size response to orientation was found to be independent of light. Red color development was not influenced, probably due to fairly uniform light environments within the canopies. Terminal shoot length was linearly related to initial orientation, with shoots initially oriented horizontally having the least terminal shoot extension. Development of lateral shoot growth in relation to shoot orientation will be discussed.