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Meghyn Meeks, Ambika Chandra, and Ben G. Wherley

Buxton, 1996 ). However, only a few of these cool-season species have shown potential for adaptability to the southern or transition zones of the United States. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in developing heat, drought, and shade-tolerant

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Shuang Han, Jiafu Jiang, Huiyun Li, Aiping Song, Sumei Chen, and Fadi Chen

of cultivar Gongzi was less affected by low light, which is consistent with the more intact structure of the companion cells in plants subjected to the “Shade” treatment. Conclusion The more tolerant cultivar Gongzi appeared able to maintain a higher

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Kristin L. Getter and Bridget K. Behe

color investments for the home and commercial landscapes in Michigan. However, it is frequently used in the same landscape beds year after year as a result of perceived lack of alternatives for other colorful shade-tolerant plants. Impatiens downy mildew

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Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer

, Z. matrella cultivars and ‘Emerald’ are considered more shade-tolerant than Z. japonica cultivars ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ; Okeyo et al., 2011a ; Sladek et al., 2009 ; Wherley et al., 2011 ). ‘Meyer’ has been the primary zoysiagrass used in the

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Qiansheng Li, Jianjun Chen, Robert H. Stamps, and Lawrence R. Parsons

., Tampa, FL) in which Canadian peat, vermiculite, and perlite were in a 3:1:1 ratio based on volume. Potted plants were grown in a shaded greenhouse under maximum photosynthetically active radiation of 285 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 and a relative humidity of 50% to

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James P. Syvertsen, Juan C. Melgar, and Francisco García-Sánchez

the salt-sensitive Carr seedlings, but tended to increase both ions in leaves of the more salt-tolerant Cleo ( García-Sánchez and Syvertsen, 2006 ). The effects of salinity stress can be worse in full sun than in shade in evergreen species ( Tattini

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Qiansheng Li, Jianjun Chen, Russell D. Caldwell, and Min Deng

Peat has been a major component of substrates for containerized plant production since the 1960s ( Bohlin and Holmberg, 2004 ) due to its high porosity, high water-holding capacity, and relatively high cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The mining and

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Michael P. Harvey and Mark H. Brand

Hakonechloa macra Makino 'Aureola' is an ornamental, shade tolerant landscape grass that grows slowly and commands high prices. Hakonechloa plants grown from four initial division sizes, of 1-2, 4-6, 8-10, or 12-15 tiller buds, were evaluated following a complete growing season (105 days). Based on visual observation, we rated 100% of plants grown from the two larger division sizes to be salable compared with only 30% of those from divisions containing 4-6 growing points, and none from the smallest division size. However, divisions of 1-2 tiller buds produced twice as many new shoots and tiller buds per initial tiller bud as did larger division sizes. To produce salable plants in one growing season, results suggest the use of 8-10 tiller bud divisions, but for propagation and increase of stock material, where it is important to obtain the greatest number of new growing points per initial growing point, use of the smaller division sizes is indicated. Hakonechloa plants were grown under shading densities of 0%, 30%, 50%, or 70% provided by polypropylene shade cloth. Shading increased overall growth and improved the appearance and leaf color of Hakonechloa, but at 70% shade density, plants appeared languid and open. For this reason, 50% shading is recommended for nursery production of Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola'.

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Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel

plants were pruned to a few newly formed shoots and then transplanted using the same containers and substrate. Sweetpotato was rooted on a shaded mist bench, and lettuce and pothos were hand-watered in a glass-covered greenhouse for 2 weeks to get them

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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

Epimedium is a genus of shade tolerant herbaceous perennials and groundcovers that are slow growing and command high prices. This research examined the influence of division size and timing on propagation success and growth of E. pinnatum ssp. colchicum Boiss., E. × rubrum Morren, E. × versicolor `Sulphureum' Morren and E. × youngianum Fisch. To determine an appropriate division size for each species, small (single bud) and large (three bud) divisions were made in mid-June 2002 and 2003. For the timing study, uniform divisions (three to five buds for E. pinnatum ssp. colchicum and E. × versicolor `Sulphureum'; four to seven buds for E. ×rubrum and E. × youngianum) were made in March, late June and late August, when plants were dormant, had just completed foliage expansion, or were summer dormant. Half of the plants were destructively harvested in the fall and half were overwintered and forced in the greenhouse in early spring. By the end of the growing season, plants grown from large divisions were larger than those grown from small divisions and had produced more buds, however, plants from small divisions produced more buds per initial bud than plants from large divisions, demonstrating a faster increase in growing points. For each species, March divisions produced more vegetative growth, buds, buds per initial bud and potential propagules than June and August divisions, by the end of the growing season. However, by the following spring, both March and June divisions had produced plants of similar size and appearance, while plants grown from August divisions were smaller and of lower quality.