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In 1988, shade tree leaves were banned from landfills and combustion facilities in New Jersey. The initial reason was that siting of new landfills and combustion facilities was difficult and existing landfill capacity had sharply decreased

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trees also affect the energy use for heating and cooling of buildings ( Akbari et al., 1997 ; McPherson et al., 1988 ; Simpson and McPherson, 1998 ; Stec et al., 2005 ). Although several studies on the cooling effect of shade trees in temperate urban

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It is estimated that 20% to 25% of turfgrasses are maintained in some degree of shade from buildings, trees, or shrubs ( Beard, 1973 ). Tree shade represents, arguably, the most stressful of these environments for the establishment and persistence

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A comprehensive study of new introductions of shade and ornamental trees adapted to the North Central United States has been underway at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, since 1966. Goal of the IO-year research effort is to evaluate characteristics of each cultivar, paying special attention to identifying the suitability of each for planting in urban and suburban environments, along street and highway right-of-ways, and under utility lines.

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Managing cultivated plants of rare tree species presents challenges because inadequate species-specific horticultural knowledge is available, and seed collections are often highly regulated and limited. Decision makers and researchers recognize the

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Four tall fescue (Festuca arundincea Schreb.) cultivars: ‘Alta’, ‘Falcon’, ‘Rebel’ and ‘Houndog’ were examined for turf performance under a tree shade. ‘Alta’ showed a more inferior turf performance than the rest of the 3 cultivars. No difference between cultivars in turf quality was detected among ‘Falcon’, ‘Rebel’ and ‘Houndog’ under the tree shade. Shade resulted in a greater reduction in plant size than in plant density. All cultivars produced a reasonable turf stand under 70% tree shade. No shade related disease problem was found in the tall fescue cultivars tested.

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Auburn Univ.'s shade tree evaluation is an ongoing study comparing a moderately diverse range of species, varieties and cultivars of larger-growing trees. Initiated in 1980, there were 250 tree selections planted in three replications located at the Piedmont Substation near Camp Hill, Ala. Among the published “fruits” of the evaluation have been critical comparisons of 10 Acer rubrum selections with respect to growth and fall color characteristics; growth rate and aesthetic characteristics of fourteen Quercus selections; growth and fireblight susceptibility of 10 Pyrus calleryana selections; and the best performing trees overall in the first 12 years of the study. The shade tree evaluation has served as an important precedent for initiation of six additional landscape tree tests in Alabama. Besides its benefits as a research project, the shade tree evaluation has provided a living laboratory for a wide range of educational audiences including landscape and nursery professionals, county extension agents, urban foresters, Master Gardeners, garden club members, and horticulture students. Knowledge gained from the shade tree evaluation has also been shared through presentations at many meetings and conferences.

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The Auburn University Shade Tree Evaluation is an ongoing trial of a moderately diverse range of species, and varieties of larger-growing trees. The study was initiated in 1980 with the planting of 250 selections in three replications of three trees each, located at the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Piedmont Substation in east-central Alabama. Among the fruit of the investigation have been an evaluation of 10 red maple (Acer rubrum) selections with respect to growth and fall color characteristics; a comparison of growth rate and aesthetic characteristics of 14 oak (Quercus) selections; a comparison of the growth and fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility of 10 callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) selections; and a 12-year evaluation of the overall best performing trees. The Shade Tree Evaluation has served as a precedent for six additional landscape tree evaluations in Alabama. It has provided a living laboratory for a wide range of educational audiences including landscape and nursery professionals, county extension agents, urban foresters, Master Gardeners, garden club members, and horticulture students. Knowledge gained from the Shade Tree Evaluation has been shared through presentations at meetings and conferences.

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Photographs of five fully foliaged shade tree canopies (Acer. rubrum, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Gymnocladus dioicus, Pyrus calleryana, and Zelkova serrata) were taken using four film types, 50- and 28-mm lenses, and a range of three f-stops. Photographs of four leafless shade tree canopies (Gleditsia, Gymnocladus, Pyrus, and Zelkova) were taken using three film types and two lenses, at two f-stops. Film densities were determined with a light source and quantum sensor system for negatives of fully foliaged and leafless canopies and correlated with mean percentage of shade measured with a pyranometer. Pan-X film, at the correct f-stop setting, gave the highest correlation to mean percentage of the fully foliaged canopies. The 50-mm lens gave a higher correlation than the 28-mm lenses. Plus-X film, at an f-stop one above the proper setting, gave the highest correlation to mean percentage of shade of the leafless canopy. Plus-X film produced the most consistent results when photographs of the leafless canopy were taken during different days and times of the day. Using a densitometer to measure film density of the negatives gave high correlations to mean percentage of shade of the leafless canopy.

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Supplemental watering of shade trees in field production nurseries is needed, even in summer-rainfall climates, to achieve maximum growth. Scheduling the timing and amount of supplemental watering makes more efficient use of financial and water resources while maintaining maximum growth. Methods of scheduling supplemental watering based on uniform canopy and rooting in production agriculture must be modified, however, for shade trees in a production setting. Nursery trees are non-uniform in canopy and rooting compared to an agricultural crop. Applying the water budget method can be effective with sprinkler systems if tree water loss and rooting depth can be properly estimated. A measure of reference evapotranspiration and a species-specific multiplier are typically used to estimate water loss. Since species diversity in a field nursery is quite high, however, estimates of both tree transpiration and rooting depth must necessarily be simplified assumptions less accurate than for a uniform agricultural crop. If supplemental water is to be applied with drip irrigation, estimates of tree transpiration and soil water depletion need to be converted to volume units with information on total tree leaf area.

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