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A.W. Fleener, C.W. Robinson, J.D. Williams and M. Kraska

( Waliczek et al., 2000 ). This study focused on one of those benefits, life skills, by measuring the effects of plant activities on the following five life skill areas: leadership, teamwork, self-understanding, decision-making skills, and communication

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Carolyn W. Robinson and Jayne M. Zajicek

The goal of this study was to assess changes in the life skill development of elementary school students participating in a 1-year school garden program. The Life Skills Inventory included statements for six constructs of life skills including teamwork, self-understanding, leadership, decision making skills, communication skills, and volunteerism. The students were divided into two treatment groups, an experimental group that participated in the garden program and a control group that did not participate in the school garden program. Students in the control group had significantly higher overall life skills scores on the pretest compared to students participating in the garden program but the scores were no longer significantly different between the groups on the posttest scores at the end of the program. In addition, there were no significant differences in the control group's pretest scores compared to their posttest scores. However, the students in the experimental group did significantly increase their overall life skills scores by 1.5 points after participating in the garden program. Two internal life skill scales were positively influenced by the garden program; “working with groups” and “self understanding.”

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Long Ma, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Huangjun Lu and Ronald Cherry

type, which is the key factor for determination of appropriate methods to be used to improve a plant species in a breeding program, differs among different warm-season turfgrass species. Bermudagrass has a high degree of self-incompatibility with self

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

poinsettias. Questions were designed to quantify student understanding of TCM and the principle aspects involved in using TCM for crop production. Before the first class meeting, each student was provided with an Institutional Review Board-approved, self

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Jemma L. Hawkins, Kathryn J. Thirlaway, Karianne Backx and Deborah A. Clayton

significantly higher levels of physical activity, life satisfaction, and self-rated health in their sample of gardeners aged 50 years or older when compared with non-gardeners from the same age range. These findings are similar to previous studies that have

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Christopher J. Currey, Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Joshua J. Mitchell

= strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) designed to quantify their confidence in understanding food security ( Table 1 ). After the self-assessment was completed, students were provided with an 11-question IRB-approved multiple-choice pre-quiz, containing

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Lauren C. Garner

project was time consuming and/or that the times and locations of the grafting projects were not convenient, though some of those same students noted that they knew this “couldn't be helped.” Discussion Self-reported increases in academic skills and

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

( Wilfret, 1993 ). To increase breeding efficiency, efforts have been made in recent years to gain a better understanding of the inheritance of foliar traits. These efforts have resulted in a number of findings. For example, it has been found that the three

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Chao Gao, Deyi Yuan, Ya Yang, Bifang Wang, Dongming Liu and Feng Zou

, 1992 ). To elucidate the interactions between pollen and stigma, Ma et al. (2013) comprehensively analyzed studies examining the characteristics of Corylus plants after self-crossing or outcrossing pollination, focusing on the affinity between

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Samantha Jay Forbes, Guiliana Mustiga, Alberto Romero, Tobin David Northfield, Smilja Lambert and Juan Carlos Motamayor

; Bos et al., 2007 ; Brown and McNeil, 2006 ; Falque et al., 1995 ; Groeneveld et al., 2010 ; Valle et al., 1990 ; Young, 1982 ; Young and Severson, 1994 ; Zuidema et al., 2005 ). Although it is well known that most cacao varieties are self