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-age children’s gardening self-efficacy ( Evans et al., 2012 ; Poston et al., 2005 ), preference for fruit and vegetables ( Morris and Zidenberg-Cherr, 2002 ; Ratcliffe et al., 2011 ), fruit and vegetable asking behaviors ( Heim et al., 2009 ) and fruit and

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personality and ability traits ( Stankov and Lee, 2008 ). An interrelated construct is self-efficacy, which refers to a person's belief in one's capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels ( Bandura, 1977 , 1986 ). Much research shows that

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. Supported by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as the conceptual framework, potential predictive variables were identified as demographics, attitudes, self-efficacy, participation in the PMG program, and prior volunteering experience. TPB was selected

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An eight-lesson gardening and nutrition curriculum with a hands-on gardening emphasis was taught as an after-school program to determine the effect it had on increasing children's nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable preference, and improving children's self-efficacy and outcome expectations for gardening and for consuming fruit and vegetables. Seventeen fourth grade students participated in the experimental group as part of an after-school gardening club, and 21 fourth grade students served as the control group. Nutrition knowledge, preference, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, as well as demographic measures were obtained at baseline and end-program. There were no differences in nutrition knowledge scores between or within groups at baseline or at end-program. However, baseline scores were high (>7 out of 10 possible) for both groups. Both groups indicated a high preference for fruit at baseline and end-program. Vegetable preference did not increase over the course of the program for both groups. At baseline, measurements of gardening self-efficacy and outcome expectations were significantly different between the groups. The experimental group was able to maintain high self-efficacy and outcome expectations scores during the program, but the control group's scores increased significantly for gardening self-efficacy and outcome expectations at the end-program assessment. Further research to clarify aspects of gardening (i.e., season, harvesting, crops grown) that have the greatest impact on influencing preference, self-efficacy and outcome expectations is needed.

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Two age appropriate curricula for third through fifth graders, Professor Popcorn (PP) and Junior Master Gardener: Health and Nutrition from the Garden (JMG), were compared for their effectiveness in teaching nutrition knowledge, improving fruit and vegetable preference, and improving self-efficacy in gardening and eating fruits and vegetables as part of an after school learning program. Eighteen third through fifth graders participated in an eight lesson summer program (11 in PP, 7 in JMG), and eleven fourth graders participated in JMG during the fall. Knowledge, preference and self-efficacy measures were obtained at baseline and at the end of the program. There were no significant differences in these variables between the participants in PP and JMG at end-program. One interesting finding, however, was the change in gardening self-efficacy of the summer JMG group compared to the fall JMG group. Gardening self-efficacy of the summer JMG group increased (P = 0.063) while that of the fall JMG group decreased (P = 0.012) from baseline to end-program. Further investigations examining the role seasons have in the outcome of a garden-enhanced nutrition program and the activities of gardening occurring at different times throughout the growing season are suggested. In addition, further research should examine the amount of classroom time versus gardening time that is needed to make a garden-enhanced nutrition program more effective in an after school learning program.

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social means, Bandura adds that behavior is mediated by self-efficacy, or one’s self-confidence to perform the behavior. Self-efficacy is critical to the point that even if a person has the ability necessary to perform a behavior, if he or she does not

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-fueled Cleaver Brooks steam generator mounted on a trailer towed by a tractor ( Fig. 1A ). Steam was injected using a 3-m-wide reverse tiller that was set to till 30 to 40 cm deep (Northwest Tillers, Yakima, WA). The self-propelled diesel-fueled steam generator

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the plants alive. Additionally, witnessing the successes of other participants may have influenced feelings of satisfaction, self-efficacy, and overall success. Future programs should seek to ensure ongoing engagement with participants to maintain

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After-school time is currently underutilized as a potential setting to promote healthy eating in children. Two programs, a standard nutrition program titled Professor Popcorn (PP) and a gardening and nutrition program using lessons from Junior Master Gardener: Health and Nutrition from the Garden (JMG), were compared to investigate their influence on nutrition knowledge, improving fruit and vegetable preference, and improving self-efficacy in gardening and eating fruit and vegetables in an out-of-school setting. Third through fifth graders participated in an after summer-school program (n = 11 in PP; n = 7 in JMG), and fourth graders participated in JMG (n = 11) during the fall after school. Knowledge, preference, and self-efficacy measures were obtained at the beginning and end of the program. Neither program improved nutrition knowledge, nor were there any differences between the PP and JMG mean difference scores. The programs did not improve fruit and vegetable preference or fruit and vegetable consumption self-efficacy. There was, however, a change in gardening self-efficacy for the summer JMG group compared with that of the fall JMG group. Gardening self-efficacy of the summer JMG group increased (P < 0.10), whereas that of the fall JMG group decreased (P < 0.05). Further investigations should examine the activities of gardening occurring at different times throughout the growing season, and the role that seasons have on the outcomes due to a garden-enhanced nutrition program. In addition, researchers should examine the amount of classroom time vs. gardening time that is needed to make a garden-enhanced nutrition program more effective in an out-of-school learning setting.

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between dependent variables (disease severity of the foliar diseases, efficacy of current disease management practices, and experience in or exposure to any new disease detection and control methods of dogwood diseases), and independent variables (scouting

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