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Luther Waters Jr., Rhoda L. Burrows, Mark A. Bennett, and John Schoenecker

A series of experiments exploring the effect of seed moisture and transplant management techniques was conducted with sh2 and su sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The use of seed and transplants in a progression of developmental stages from dry seed to moistened seed to 14-day-old transplants showed that moistened seed had no impact on plant `growth and development. Use of transplants generally had little impact beyond decreasing percent survival and plant height. Increasing the age of transplants reduced the time to maturity and harvest. Increasing the size of the transplant container (paper pot) decreased the time to harvest for younger seedings, but had no other effects. Premoistened seed were successfully held at 10C for up to 72 hours without damage following moisturization. Delays in irrigation of up to 2 days after planting moistened seed had no detrimental effects on sweet corn emergence and growth.

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J.O. Payero, M.S. Bhangoo, and J.J. Steiner

The effects of six applied N treatments differing by rates and frequencies of application on the yield and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L. `Anaheim Chili') grown for seed was studied. The timing of N applications was based on crop phenology, leaf petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (NO3-N) minimum thresholds, and scheduled calendar applications of fixed amounts of N. Solubilized NH4NO3 was applied through a trickle-irrigation system to ensure uniform and timely applications of N. Rate of mature (green and red) fruit production was unaffected by any treatment except weekly applications of 28 kg·ha-1 of N, which stopped production of mature fruit before all other treatments. Early season floral bud and flower production increased with increasing amounts of N. The two highest total N treatments produced more floral buds and flowers late in the season than the other treatments. Total fruit production was maximized at 240 kg N/ha. Differences in total fruit production due to frequency of N application resulted at the highest total N level. Red fruit production tended to be maximized with total seasonal applied N levels of 240 kg·ha-1 and below, although weekly applications of N reduced production. Total seed yield was a function of red fruit production. Pure-1ive seed (PLS) production was a function of total seed production. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for red fruit production also decreased with N rates >240 kg·ha-1, but PLS yield and NUE decreased in a near-linear fashion as the amount of total seasonal applied N increased, regardless of application frequency. Season average NO3-N (AVE NO3-N) values >4500 mg·kg-1 had total seed and PLS yields less than those treatments <4000 mg·kg-1. Six-day germination percentage was reduced with weekly N applications of 14 kg·ha-1. Seed mass was reduced with weekly N applications of 28 kg·ha-1. Final germination percent, seedling root length and weight, and field emergence were unaffected by any of the N treatments. These findings indicate that different N management strategies are needed to maximize seed yield compared to fruit yield and, therefore, there may be an advantage to growing `Anaheim Chili' pepper specifically for seed.

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Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Shannon M. Rupprecht, Mark J. VanGessel, Cerruti R.R. Hooks, Matthew J. Morra, and Kathryne L. Everts

Deregistration of synthetic chemical pesticides has increased the need for alternative management strategies directed at soilborne diseases and pests. One alternative available to conventional and organic growers is incorporation of mustard seed

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Jesús Valencia and Donald M. May

An irrigation water study was conducted in the West side of Fresno County to evaluate the impact of recycled drainage water nitrogen and salinity content in the growth of direct seeded processing tomatoes to reduce nitrate-ground water pollution. Four canal water treatments (0.4 dS/m) received 0, 67.5, 101.2, and 168.7 kg of nitrogen per hectare and four saline water treatments (7.01 dS/m) received 0, 33.7, 67.5 and 135.0 kg nitrogen per hectare. All treatments were established with fresh canal water, and at first flower half of treatments were switched to saline water. The nitrogen content of water had an average of 283 ppm N-NO3 for the canal water and the drainage water contained 4489 ppm N-NO3. There was no significant yield differences between the irrigation methods and the two N-fertilizer sources applied to the tomatoes. However, drainage water produced a significant increase in fruit soluble solids (5.05 Av.) in comparison to canal water and synthetic fertilizer (4.3 Av.). The overall fruit quality and maturity was better in the drainage water treatments than it was in the fresh canal water with synthetic N-applied treatments.

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Fredy R. Romero, Kathleen Delate, and David Hannapel

Consumption of Echinacea, one of the most popular botanical supplements, continues to expand in the United States. In addition, organic herbal products have captured a large share of the botanical supplement market. We evaluated commercial organic production of the three most-important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench., and E. pallida (Nutt.) from two seed sources. Plants were grown in the field for 3 consecutive years. We found that, during the first year, screen cages were associated with enhanced post-transplanting establishment. Growth of E. angustifolia was not affected by either production system or seed source after 3 years, and yields were equivalent for years 2 and 3 for this species. Growth of E. purpurea was affected by production system, but not by seed source, during the first 2 years. In year 3, neither seed source nor production system affected growth of E. purpurea. Yield of E. pallida was greater in the open field the first year; no difference between production systems was found during the second; and, by the third year, plants growing in screened cages produced more than plants growing in the open field. Production system affected yield of E. purpurea only during year 2, and yield was greater in the open field than in screened cages. Echinacea plants in the open field, however, were more affected by aster yellows disease, with an infection rate of 17% for E. purpurea in the open field compared to 3% under screen cages. Based on these results, in areas of aster yellows incidence, excellent Echinacea root yields can be obtained under screen cages using organic seeds.

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Samuel Contreras, Mark A. Bennett, James D. Metzger, and David Tay

management of particular environmental conditions, such as photoperiod or light quality, for specific improvement of some aspects of seed quality is not a frequent practice in seed production for most species. Storability or longevity may be defined as the

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Kiersten A. Wise, Robert A. Henson, and Carl A. Bradley

different management practices is the best way to manage ascochyta blight of chickpea ( Gan et al., 2006 ). Integrated management programs include crop rotation, seed certification and testing, fungicide seed treatment, partially resistant cultivars, and

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Eric B. Brennan and Jim E. Leap

. Incorporating seed with the cultivator and disc resulted in more cover crop emergence in the furrows than was observed in the other treatments. Cover crop emergence in the furrows can create management challenges at season end when the cover crop is terminated

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Derald A. Harp, Cheng Chen, and Curtis Jones

annuals and short-lived perennials, relies on either replanting or the success and growth of seeds. Ksiasek et al. (2014) confirmed that green roof plants are capable of producing viable seed. However, few plants produce successful seedlings ( Hopman

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Melissa Bonham, Gerald M. Ghidiu, Erin Hitchner, and Elwood L. Rossell

, azinphos-methyl, and phosmet, until the early 1990s. Additionally, the increase in carrot weevil damage may also be attributed to limited acreage for crop rotation, an important pest management tactic for carrot weevil ( Grafius, 1984 ). Seed treatment