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Takahiro Tezuka, Hisa Yokoyama, Hideyuki Tanaka, Shuji Shiozaki, and Masayuki Oda

al., 1995 ; Rey et al., 2002 ), the simplicity of reproduction through seeds has advantages for mass propagation. However, Ilex seeds are difficult to germinate, because embryos in mature seeds are usually at the immature heart or torpedo stage

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Frank Balestri and William R. Graves

gum can germinate with pulp of drupes intact, although it is unknown whether pulp enhances or impedes seed germination of Nyssa spp. Fagan et al. (1981) demonstrated that seeds of lily turf [ Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey] with their mealy

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Huan-Cheng Ma

method for studying the mechanisms of deterioration over short periods, and it generally is done by subjecting seeds to elevated temperature and high relative humidity ( Kapoor et al., 2011 ). Aging is evidenced by delayed germination and emergence

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Hector E. Pérez

, offshoots, or tissue culture, the vast majority of landscape palms are propagated by seeds. However, commercial production of many palm species is hampered by delayed and inconsistent germination. Such sporadic germination is often due to seed dormancy

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Carlos De la Cuadra, Alexis K. Vidal, Susana Lefimil, and Leví Mansur

commercially available in Chile, Japan, Holland, the United States, and others ( Olate and Schiappacasse, 2013 ). The understanding of seed germination, growth, and development is important for breeding purposes and sexual propagation of these species as an

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Chunyang Zhang, Jiefang Wu, Danwen Fu, Limin Wang, Jiezhen Chen, Changhe Cai, and Liangxi Ou

selected from seedlings ( Menzel, 1985 ). The germination performance of seeds and the seed placement in sowing are important to achieve seedlings ( Aou-ouad et al., 2014 ; de Andrade et al., 2004 ). Litchi seeds are considered to be “recalcitrant,” due to

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Samuel Contreras, Mark A. Bennett, James D. Metzger, and David Tay

uniformity in seed germination and seedling emergence in the field ( Ryder, 1999 ; Wien, 1997 ). A common approach to overcome germination problems in lettuce has been to treat the seeds before sowing. For instance, seed priming improves germination and

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Samuel Contreras, Mark A. Bennett, James D. Metzger, David Tay, and Haim Nerson

Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated fresh vegetable crops in the world and its establishment requires high-quality seeds. Lettuce seed thermoinhibition (inability to germinate at high temperatures) and

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Todd P. West, Samuel L. DeMarais, and Chiwon W. Lee

) reported that fall planting of japanese tree lilac seed in Nebraska yielded 60% to 65% germination rates without stratification. Unfortunately, there is no information reported on timing of seed collection or any other criteria for collection time to

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Michael Evans, Curt Rom, Edward E. Gbur Jr., Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

, 2014 ). Prior experiments have shown that spinach seeds will germinate in soil temperatures from 5 to 30 °C with germination percentages highest at 20 °C and dropping abruptly between 25 and 30 °C ( Atherton and Farooque, 1983 ). Spinach seed