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Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Rossana Sallenave, Marco Schiavon, and Bernd Maier

the most tolerant grasses to salinity, whereas bahiagrass ( Paspalum notatum Flüggé) is highly sensitive to increases in salinity at the germination stage ( Peacock and Dudeck, 1989 ). Commercially available turfgrass seeds can be coated with

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Arianna Bozzolo and Michael R. Evans

weight, and average dry root weight occurred between seeds germinated with a cork granulate or vermiculite top coat. Results and discussion Physical properties of vermiculite and cork granulates. The bulk density of cork granulates was 0.16 g·cm −3 and

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James T. Watkins

Sakata Seed America investigated the possibility of marketing a film-coated broccoli seed product. Film coating is the process of applying a colored polymer film material onto the seed surface that completely covers the seed and any seed pesticide. Film-coated seed has the benefit of providing uniform and precise pesticide placement, is dust free, safe to handle, can be highly visible in the soil, and has increased flowability in seed planters. The drawbacks arc the cost of the film-coating machinery and the film product as well as the slower application rate. The basic application procedure of film products to broccoli seed and the effects of film products on seed viability and seed storage will be discussed.

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J. E. Wyatt

Abstract

Differences in water absorption by intact seeds and in osmotic properties of excised seed coats were measured in 4 near-isogenic breeding lines of snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. White seeds absorbed water more rapidly than colored seeds. Excised white seed coats were more permeable to water than colored seed coats in response to an osmotic gradient. Seed coat thickness and seed coat dry weight were negatively correlated with rate of osmosis through the seed coats. Colored seeds had greater seed coat dry weight and thickness than white-seeded isolines.

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Mark J. Bassett and Phillip N. Miklas

Bassett (2007) wrote a comprehensive review of the genetics of seed-coat color and pattern in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ). The gene loci T , P , and V have multiple alleles, which express pleiotropic effects on color and pattern in

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M. Sachs, D. J. Cantliffe, and T. A. Nell

Abstract

Germination rate of sand-coated pepper (Capsicum annum L.) seed (sand grain size < 75μm for an inner coat and 75–105 μm for an outer coat layer) was faster than clay-coated seed but was slower than raw seed. Part of the germination reduction in sand-coated seeds was caused by the water-soluble Gelvatol binder used. High oxygen (O2) levels promoted the germination of sand-coated seed to a rate comparable to that of raw seed. This suggests that even with a porous sand-coating material, O2 may be limiting for the germinating seed. When inorganic O2-releasing compounds (BaO2 or NaBO3) were incorporated into the sand material, the germination of pepper seed was further inhibited.

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M. Sachs, D. J. Cantliffe, and T. A. Nell

Abstract

Seed germination of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is inhibited after the seed is coated. The inhibitory effect of pellet-coating of ‘Early Calwonder’ pepper seed was caused by the physical properties of the coating materials. Clay coating limited part of the oxygen (O2) from reaching the germinating seed and provided a mechanical barrier to protrusion of the radicle. Clay-coated pepper seed germinated satisfactorily on filter paper in a high O2 environment or with minimum moisture on agar. Pellet coating formulations which would provide more O2 to the imbibing seed would assure comparable germination of raw and coated sweet pepper seed.

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P.C. Lee, A.G. Taylor, and T.G. Min

Sinapine leakage to detect seed germination potential on a single-seed basis in Brassica has been developed as a rapid test. In this test, sinapine leakage predicts that a seed is non-germinable; however, the major source of errors in this method are false-negative (F–)—i.e., the method predicted a seed was germinable because the seed did not leak, and it did not germinate. The sinapine leakage index (SLI) was used to asses the F– for any seed lot by dividing the number of non-germinable seeds that leaked sinapine by the total number of non-germinable seeds. Seed lots including cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli (B. oleracea L., Captitata, Botrytis, and Italica groups, respectively) were used to examine the F–. The leakage rate as measured by T50, the time for 50% of heat-killed seeds to leak, was linearly correlated to SLI. Cabbage seeds were viewed by scanning electronic microscopy and leaking non-germinable seeds either had cracks or were shrunken. NaOCl pretreatment has been found to increase the rate of sinapine leakage and SLI. The mode of NaOCl was due to high pH altering the seed coat permeability. Chemical analysis was conducted on isolated seed coats for pectin, tannins, hemicellulose, cellulose, phenolic lignin, and cutin. It was found that the higher SLI (more permeable) lots contained lower amounts of cutin, suggesting that cutin may restrict the diffusion of sinapine through the testa.

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Rodney O. Jones and Robert L. Geneve

Seed coat anatomy in the hilar region was examined in dry, imbibed and germinating seeds of Eastern redbud. A discontinuous area was observed between macrosclereid cells in the palisade layer of the seed coat which formed a hilar slit. A symmetrical cap was formed during germination as the seed coat separated along the hilar slit and was hinged by the macrosclereids in the area of the seed coat opposite to the hilar slit. The discontinuity observed in the palisade layer was the remnant of the area traversed by the vascular trace between the funiculus and the seed coat of the developing ovule. There were no apparent anatomical differences in the hilar region of the seed coat between dormant and non-dormant imbibed seeds. However, the thickened layer of mesophyll cells of the seed coat in this region and the capacity of the endospetm to stretch along with the elongating radicle may contribute to maintaining dormancy in redbud seeds.

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A.G. Taylor, D.B. Churchill, S.S. Lee, D.M. Bilsland, and T.M. Cooper

Abbreviation: PMT, photomultiplier tubes. 1 Associate Professor of Seed Science and Technology. 2 Agricultural Engineer, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Forge Seed Production Research Center, Corvallis, OR 97331. 3