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Mark G. Lefsrud, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

LED arrays may facilitate investigation on the impact of specific wavelengths on secondary metabolite production in vegetable crops. Literature Cited Antonious, G.F. Kasperbauer, M.J. Byers, M.E. 1996 Light

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Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo, Samuel Salazar-García, Jorge Armando Bonilla-Cárdenas, Juan Antonio Herrera-González, Martha Elva Ibarra-Estrada, and Arturo Álvarez-Bravo

of ‘Hass’ avocado fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 31 287 294 De-la-Cruz Chacón, I. Riley-Saldaña, C.A. González-Esquinca, A.R. 2013 Secondary metabolites during early development in plants Phytochem. Rev. 12 1 47 64 Donetti, M. Terry, L.A. 2012

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Zhibin Fan, Kai Zhang, Fengyun Wang, Xiaodan Zhao, Ruiqin Bai, and Boling Liu

had a significant cytotoxicity against cultured human tumor cell lines ( Ryu et al., 1996 ). Dried roots of S. miltiorrhiza have been found to contain relatively large amounts of the important secondary metabolites (tanshinones and diterpenoid

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Brent Tisserat and Steven Vaughn

The influence of a wide range of CO2 levels on the growth, morphogenesis, and secondary metabolite production in vitro was evaluated. Shoots of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and a spearmint–peppermint cross (Mentha spicata × Mentha piperita) were grown on MS medium with and without 3% sucrose under 350, 1500, 3000, 10,000, and 30,000 μL CO2/L for 8 weeks. Dichloromethane extracts from leafs were analyzed using GC-MS techniques. Prominent peaks were identified by comparison with known standards. Highest growth (i.e., fresh weight) and morphogenesis responses (i.e., leafs, shoots and roots) were obtained when shoots were grown under 10,000 μL CO2/L regardless of whether or not sucrose was included in the medium. Ultra-high CO2 concentrations (3000 μL CO2/L) stimulated secondary metabolite production regardless of whether or not the medium contained sucrose. However, the combination of certain ultra-high CO2 levels (e.g., 3000 to 10,000 μL CO2/L) and the presence of sucrose in the medium resulted in shoots producing the highest levels of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that in vitro photosynthesis, which is stimulated by ultrahigh CO2 levels, may enhance secondary metabolite production.

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Fredy R. Romero, David J. Hannapel, and Kathleen Delate

Echinacea is one of the best-selling medicinal plants in the United States. It was historically harvested from wild populations, but its demand has increased so significantly that commercial production has become a necessity to supply the increasing demand and to protect wild populations. The medicinal properties of echinacea are associated with secondary metabolites that are produced mainly in the roots. Hairy roots, induced by the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, have been produced in other crops as alternative sources of secondary metabolites that commonly are produced and synthesized in the roots of mature plants. This method of production offers some advantages over traditional agricultural systems, such as the possibility of producing novel compounds year-round. The overall goal of this project is to explore the utility of hairy root cultures (mediated by A. rhizogenes) as an efficient, alternative, and enriched source of secondary compounds with medicinal properties, such as alkamides, flavonoids, and caffeic acid derivatives. We have been successful in transforming roots from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea plants, and confirming the presence of rol ABC genes in hairy roots using molecular techniques. Roots from control plants show no active growth under dark conditions, whereas transformed roots from E. pallida and E. purpurea show a low degree of branching with a slow growth rate on solid media under darkness. However, transformed E. angustifolia show a faster growth rate and higher degree of branching under the same conditions. Currently, we are working on the optimization of the growing conditions of the transformed roots and will proceed to the biochemical analysis phase of the project.

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Keletso C. Mohale, Araya T. Hintsa, Machel A. Emanuel, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

Bush tea ( A. phylicoides DC.) is a South African indigenous and traditional herbal tea rich in secondary metabolites, which have therapeutic effects ( Padayachee, 2011 ), pharmacological properties ( McGaw et al., 2007 ), and different phenolic

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Maedza K. Vuwani, Mpumelelo Nkomo, Wonder Ngezimana, Nokwanda P. Makunga, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

photosynthetic rates ( Haukioja et al., 1998 ). This resulted in the biosynthesis of carbon-based secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins, known as total polyphenols, which are antioxidant in nature ( Haukioja et al., 1998

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Xinjing Qu, Hui Wang, Ming Chen, Jiao Liao, Jun Yuan, and Genhua Niu

caused reductions in phenylalanine, quinic acid, and shikimic acid in ‘Huajin’ leaves. Chlorogenic acid, coumarin, phloretin, and syringing, the secondary metabolites of the shikimic acid metabolic pathway in ‘Huajin’ leaves, were simultaneously decreased

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, and Robert C. Morrow

secondary metabolite phytochemicals, which provide benefits beyond normal health maintenance and nutrition and play active roles in chronic disease reductions ( Kopsell and Kopsell, 2010 ). Stress is a term used to collectively describe numerous conditions

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Au Trung Vo, Imane Haddidi, Hussein Daood, Zoltan Mayer, and Katalin Posta

; Gianinazzi et al., 2010 ). Recently, the application of AMF in the cultivation of some medicinal plants has been evaluated for their influence on the biologically active secondary metabolites. Fifty medicinal plant species from 19 families have been described