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use and cultivars with resistance to insect and disease, losses have been estimated between 20% and 30% of total yield ( Lucas, 2011 ). Information on degree of damage resulting from insect pressure in small-scale vegetable production is limited. Lack

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Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs. D.R. Miller and J.A. Davidson. 2005. Comstock Publishing Associates (A Division Cornell University Press), Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, New York 14850. 442 pages. Over 100 figures

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, 2000 ). Both oil and soap can kill natural enemies on contact ( Bostanian and Akalach, 2004 , 2006 ; Oetting and Latimer, 1995 ; Smith and Krischik, 2000 ). Nevertheless these materials are commonly used to manage scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea

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Scale insects are among the most destructive pests that feed on leaves, stems, and fruit of vegetative and woody plants ( Fulcher et al., 2012 ). High densities of scale insects can slow the rate of carbohydrate assimilation ( Speight, 1991

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In urban forests throughout North America, scale insects are some of the most abundant pests damaging landscape trees ( Frank 2019 ). Crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS), Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is a nonnative

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unit on the Likert scale of 1 (very unlikely) to 5 (very likely). The second set of questions (characteristics and connotations of insect management practices) asked “Which of the following do you consider to be characteristic of plants that are grown

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complete or partial resistance, which consists of antixenosis (nonpreference), antibiosis, and tolerance to insect damage ( Thomas and Waage 1996 ). The successful development of scale insect colonies can be affected and evaluated by various biological (or

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). Although the insect morphology suggested the unknown scale on Spiraea were CMBS, observational evidence still has limitations in its ability to identify species. For example, the azalea bark scale, a close relative of CMBS, is often mistaken as CMBS

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water was 7.2 and EC was 1 mmho/cm. Photos and initial insect counts were taken showing baseline level of scale infestation for 40 individuals. In all cases, no live insects were found on the experimental plants at the start of the experiment, but CAS is

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Feb. 2010 < http://www.iucnredlist.org >. Howard, F.W. Hamon, A. McLaughlin, M. Weissling, T. Yang, S.-L. 1999 Aucalaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae), a scale insect

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