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San-Gwang Hwang, Yi-Ying Li and Huey-Ling Lin

The king oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus eryngii ) is classified as a white rot fungus capable of digesting lignocellulose ( Sharma and Arora, 2015 ). Currently, lignocellulosic materials such as sawdust obtained from various tree species are widely

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Wei Qiang Yang*

In a 2-year study, the decomposition rates (changes in carbon to nitrogen ratio) of two kinds of sawdust used for blueberry production were determined. The effects of sawdust age and nitrogen application rates on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of two sawdust types were evaluated. When nitrogen was not applied, the C:N ratio in fresh and aged sawdust decreased 30% and 10% respectively over a 1-year period, indicating fresh sawdust decomposed faster than aged sawdust when used as a surface mulch. However, the C:N ratios between soils amended with aged and fresh sawdust were similar when no nitrogen was added, suggesting the age of sawdust does not affect the decomposition rate once the sawdust is incorporated into the soil. It was found that two nitrogen application rates (150 kg·ha-1 vs. 50 kg·ha-1) had an equal affect on the C:N ratio of both sawdust types. Nitrogen application had no affect on the C:N ratio of both sawdust types when both sawdust were used as soil amendments. Clearly, the decomposition rates of the sawdust were influenced by sawdust age and nitrogen application rates.

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S. Christopher Marble, Shawn T. Steed, Debalina Saha and Yuvraj Khamare

tackifier (Granite Seed, North Lehi, UT), a shredded hardwood mulch {HW [derived from melaleuca trees ( Melaleuca quinquenervia ) (Forestry Resources, Fort Myers, FL)]}, HW + tackifier, pine sawdust + tackifier, a recycled waste-paper mulch slurry (PM), PM

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J.J. Worrall and C.S. Yang

A mixture of apple pomace and sawdust was tested as a substrate for production of shiitake [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] and oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer and P. sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing.] on synthetic logs. MyCelia grew faster and more densely in logs containing apple pomace than in sawdust alone. Five shiitake isolates and two Pleurotus spp. produced higher fresh weights on a mixture of equal parts (by weight) of apple pomace and sawdust than on either substrate alone. An alternative substrate based on sawdust, millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), bran gave almost identical overall yield as pomace-sawdust medium, but there was a significant differential effect of the substrates on yield of the two tested shiitake isolates. Analyses and experiments in vitro suggested that optimal N levels provided by apple pomace account in part for its effectiveness.

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R.P. Pacumbaba and R.O. Pacumbaba Jr.

Seven strains of shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] produced spawn in culture vessels containing hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS (yeast extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar) broth within 35 to 45 days after mycelia inoculations. Under greenhouse conditions, shiitake basidiocarps (mushroom fruit) appeared from 1 to 3 months after spawn inoculations of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth. The shiitake mushroom strains LE2, LE1, LE6, and LE5 had 10.4, 7.3, 2.5, and 1.6 times more fresh harvested basidiocarps, respectively, on the amended hardwood sawdust compared to the controls. The amount of basidiocarps produced by the shiitake strains LE3, LE4, and LE7 was the same on both hardwood sawdust treatments. The basidiocarps of LE1, LE2, LE3, LE4, and LE5 were averaged 5 inches (12.7 cm) in diameter, however, the basidiocarps of LE6 and LE7 were averaging only 2 inches (5.1 cm) in diameter. The only pests of the shiitake basidiocarps in the greenhouse were slugs, but they were easily controlled by applying table salt. The start up cost of inoculating 100 shiitake spawn blocks on hardwood sawdust on one bench in the greenhouse was $77. The start up cost of inoculating shiitake spawn on 100 logs was $1,329.75. In 1 year, shiitake strains LE1, LE2, LE5, and LE6 produced 19.5, 20.2, 7.9, and 4.5 lb (8.8, 9.2, 3.6, and 2.0 kg), respectively, of harvested fresh basidiocarps on amended hardwood sawdust in the greenhouse. The mushrooms retail for $3.20 to $4.20/lb ($7.05 to $9.26/kg). The use of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth for shiitake production in the greenhouse has considerable economic potential for shiitake mushroom growers.

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John R. Clark and James N. Moore

The southern highbush blueberry cultivars `Blueridge', `Cape Fear', `Georgiagem' and `O'Neal' were evaluated for their response to sawdust/woodchip mulch for five years at Clarksville, Arkansas on a Linker fine sandy loam soil. Mulched plants produced higher yields and larger plant volumes than non-mulched. Berry weight was similar for mulch treatment except for the first fruiting year. All cultivars responded to mulch, although `Blueridge' and 'Cape Fear' produced the higher yields. General response of these cultivars of southern highbush was similar to that of northern highbush in previous mulch studies in Arkansas.

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

; Savage, 1942 ; White, 2006 ), root distribution through the soil profile ( Spiers, 2000 ), and whip and shoot production ( Kozinski, 2006 ; White, 2006 ). Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii M.) sawdust is a common mulch used in blueberry production in

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James W. Julian, Bernadine C. Strik, Handell O. Larco, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

, Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii M.) sawdust was readily available and commonly used in conventional and organic blueberry production systems in the northwestern United States. However, sawdust has become increasingly expensive and has a high carbon (C

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Mark D. Sherratt, Donna V. Coffindaffer-Ballard and Bradford C. Bearce

Four poinsettia cultivars were planted in root media containing 0%, 25%, or 50% (by volume) of coal bottom ash or aged hardwood sawdust. Bract color development in `Supjibi' was delayed in media containing sawdust or ash by up to 8–12 days. Bract color initiation of `Jingle Bells' and `Success' occurred earliest in media containing 25% sawdust, but color development was delayed in 50% coal ash. Color development in `Dark Red Hegg' was not affected by ash or sawdust. Analysis of combined leaves from all four cultivars showed Fe levels below normal where media contained sawdust. Leaf Mo concentrations increased with increased media sawdust to above the normal range, but Mn levels were below the normal range in sawdust media. Leaf Ca levels were below normal in all media, possibly due to excessively high K levels in media and leaves. When fertilizer concentration and frequency were adjusted to media EC levels, control media (0% ash or sawdust) required 100 ppm N once a week. Media containing sawdust required 300 ppm to maintain EC levels between 1.25–2.25 dS·m–1 and coal ash media were irrigated with water following the sixth week after planting due to EC levels >2.25.

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

covered with sawdust mulch than when using sawdust mulch alone. Sawdust mulch is often used for weed control as well as other benefits in blueberry such as reducing soil water loss and increasing soil organic matter content ( Burkhard et al., 2009 ; Clark