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Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson, and David Hansson

others, it decreased root and shoot growth ( Atucha et al., 2013 ; Merwin and Stiles, 1994 ), delayed fruit maturity, and reduced yield as a result of competition with the fruit trees ( Goh and Ridgen, 1995 ; Marsh et al., 1996 ). The “sandwichsystem

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Dario Stefanelli, Roberto J. Zoppolo, Ronald L. Perry, and Franco Weibel

significant interaction between treatments and rootstocks with the highest yield and yield efficiency under the flame burning and Swiss sandwich system (SSS) treatments occurring with trees grafted on M.9 RN 29 rootstock. Cumulative yield was highest in the

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Michel R. Wiman, Elizabeth M. Kirby, David M. Granatstein, and Thomas P. Sullivan

the “sandwichsystem ( Weibel et al., 2007 ), which tills the sides of the tree row while maintaining a narrow cover crop strip in the tree line, is hypothesized to discourage meadow vole activity. Wood chip mulch has performed well for weed control

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Mehdi Sharifi, Julia Reekie, Andrew Hammermeister, Mohammed Zahidul Alam, and Taylor MacKey

performance in an organic apple ( Malus domestica Borkh) orchard in northern Patagonia Plant Soil 292 193 203 Schmid, A. Weibel, F. 2000 Das Sandwich-System–ein Verfahren zur herbizidfreien Baumstreifenbewirtschaftung? [The Sandwich System, a procedure for

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Dario Stefanelli, Roberto J. Zoppolo, and Ronald L. Perry

Fine root dynamics, timing of the events, and their relationship with soil conditions are of major interest because the understanding of these phenomena will permit a better synchronicity between nutrients and plant uptake. The goal of this research is to study the effect of different soil conditions, generated from two ground floor management systems, on fine root dynamics of apple trees under organic protocol in Michigan. The research has been conducted at the Clarksville Horticultural Experimental Station (CHES) of Michigan State University (MSU), in the organically certified (by OCIA) orchard of “Pacific Gala” grafted on M9 NAKB 337, established in May 2000. The orchard floor management systems being studied are: 1) a mulch made of alfalfa hay on the tree rows, with a width of 1.8 m and 2) the “Swiss Sandwich System” (SSS) that consists in superficial tillage of two strips 80 cm wide at each side of the tree row, leaving a 40 cm strip in the middle (on the tree row, under the canopy) where volunteer vegetation is allowed to grow. Root dynamics are studied on four replicas of two trees per each of the two ground treatments (16 in total) in a block design. For each tree in the trial four clear butyrate minirhizotrons have been installed (64 in total) at a 45° angle facing the tree, in the summer of 2002. Root dynamics, measured through pictures taken with a Bartz Technology digital camera and analyzed with a new software under development at MSU. During the 2003 season differences between the two systems have been found depending on the parameter taken in consideration. Mulch had different root distribution compared to SSS. Mulch treatment showed shallower roots even if below 90 cm the two systems didn't show any difference.

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Dario Stefanelli and Ronald L. Perry

One of the main problems facing organic horticulture is orchard ground floor management. Several works report that ground floor management affects root architecture of fruit trees, changing the position and depth of the roots. The purpose of this work is to study the effects of orchard ground floor management systems (GFMS) in an apple orchard under organic protocol in Michigan. The research was conducted at the Clarksville Horticultural Experimental Station of Michigan State University, in the organically certified (by OCIA) orchard of `Pacific Gala' grafted on M9 NAKB 337, established in May 2000. The GFMS being studied are: 1) mulch (MU) made of alfalfa hay on the tree rows, with a width of 2 m; 2) “Swiss Sandwich System” (SSS) that consists in superficial tillage of two strips 90 cm wide at each side of the tree row, leaving a 40-cm strip in the middle (under the canopy) where volunteer vegetation is allowed to grow; 3) flaming (FL) of the weeds in a 2-m strip underneath the tree canopy by a propane burner. Root architecture was studied in Sept. 2005 through the frequency of roots by the profile wall method. Trenches (3.36-m long × 1.32-m deep) were dug in the soil 45 cm from the tree trunk. Two 158 cm × 130 cm metal grid frames divided by strings into a 28 cm × 22 cm grid were placed against the profile faces to facilitate the counting and mapping of the root distribution. The GFMS did affect the root distribution of the two classes of roots under study (<2 mm and >2mm). In the FL and MU treatments, roots were noticed to be superficial and their frequency was higher close to the tree. In SSS, root frequency was similar until 80 cm deep in the soil profile and they extended farther from the tree.

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William J. Lamont Jr

a pipe or other framework covered by a single layer of greenhouse-grade 4- to 6-mil plastic and they have no electrical service, automated ventilation, or heating system ( Fig. 1 ) ( Lamont et al., 2002 ; Wells, 1996 ). Although there is no

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Ellen T. Paparozzi

., 2012 ). We decided to reduce the evaporation from the mat system by creating a plastic sandwich—6-mil black polyethylene (Hummert International, Earth City, MO) on the bottom, then the fiber mat with drip tape, and a top layer of plastic. To increase

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David Granatstein and Kent Mullinix

Sandwichsystem uses a narrow band of perennial vegetation in the trunk line combined with shallow tillage on each side of the trees ( Sanchez et al., 2003 ; Schmid et al., 2004 ). This reduces competition, eases cultivation, and still provides more

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Scovia Adikini, Settumba B. Mukasa, Robert O.M. Mwanga, and Richard W. Gibson

after sprouting, the root sprouts were assessed for the number of shoots produced and the virus symptoms expressed. The symptomatic plants were tested by double antibody sandwich (DAS) and triple antibody sandwich (TAS) ELISA to confirm whether symptoms