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Xunzhong Zhang, Wenli Wu, Erik H. Ervin, Chao Shang, and Kim Harich

landscapes ( Huang et al., 2014 ; Jiang et al., 2013 ; Sun et al., 2015 ). Salt stress may reduce turfgrass growth and quality by osmotic stress-induced injury. In many areas with limited fresh water resources, reclaimed water has been applied on golf

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Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry

Salt injury was induced by 5% (w/v) NaCl drenching on Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. & Zucc. and H. syriacus L. seedlings. Total chlorophyll content of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg·liter–1) treatment increased and 25- or 50-mg·liter–1 GA3 treatment decreased chlorophyll content of H. hamabo. Total chlorophyll content of H. syriacus was not affected by uniconazole or GA3. Total carbohydrate content of H. syriacus was more accumulated than that of H. homabo. Total carbohydrate content of H. hamabo was more decreased than that of H. syriacus by Ca (13.35 or 133.5 mM), uniconazole, or GA3 in relation to total carbohydrate contents. Protein contents of H. hamabo were higher than those of H. syriacus. Uniconazole or GA3 increased those of H. hamabo and decreased those of H. syriacus. Peroxidase activity of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole decreased that of H. hamabo and increased that of H. syriacus. GA3 or Ca (13.35 mM) treatment increased that of both species. ATPase activity of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole (5 mg·liter–1), GA3, or Ca decreased that of H. hamabo increased that of H. syriacus.

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Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry

Shoot length, leaf length and width, root length, and crown diameter were affected by 0.0-, 0.5-, 1.0-, and 5.0-mg·liter–1 uniconazole drench and 25- or 50-mg·liter–1 GA3 spray but not significantly by 0.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl. Leaf width of H. syriacus Sieb. & Zucc. was not affected and that of H. syriacus L. significantly decreased, as NaCl concentration increased. Effect of NaCl on H. syriacus leaf width was offset by treatment with uniconazole but not by GA3 treatment. With 2.5% NaCl, dry weight of H. hamabo treated with uniconazole or GA3 increased and that of treated H. syriacus decreased. With 5.0% NaCl, dry weight of both species decreased with uniconazole or GA3. Calcium at 13.35 or 133.5 mM decreased the reduction of dry weight by NaCl treatment. The dry: fresh weight ratio of H. hamabo and H. syriacus treated with NaCl plus uniconazole was higher than that only treated with NaCl. GA3 treatment with NaCl did not affect the dry: fresh weight ratio for either species

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Waltram Ravelombola, Jun Qin, Yuejin Weng, Beiquan Mou, and Ainong Shi

leaf chlorosis, 3 = expansion of chlorosis on leaf surface, 4 = totally chlorotic leaf, 5 = first sign of necrosis, 6 = expansion of necrosis on leaf surface, and 7 = completely dead plants). Fig. 3. Foliar injury due to salt stress: 1 = healthy plants

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Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, Joshua D. Sherman, and Randall Norton

plants use Na and Cl to maintain turgor pressure in leaves, the plant may need to develop a balance between these ions to avoid ion toxicity. It is unclear which of the ions in saline water or soil cause salt injury in pecans. Faruque (1968 ) treated

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Xu-Wen Jiang, Cheng-Ran Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang, Guang-Hai Xu, and Hai-Yan Zhang

by seeds is considered the most efficient method of I. indigotica production to fulfill an increasing demand. Salinity and abiotic stress are limiting factors for plant growth. At least 20% of irrigated fields across the world are affected by salt

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Fei Xiong, Jieren Liao, Yuanchun Ma, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, and Xujun Zhu

stability. The increasing POD and CAT activity and the change in SOD activity were related to salt concentration, and the endogenous PA content increased to alleviate salt injury. Moreover, the impact of exogenous Put on salt-treated C. sinensis was

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Ao Liu, Jibiao Fan, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

SNP effectively alleviated the injury; the activity of the three enzymes decreased by 18.5%, 8.8%, and 10.7% as compared with their performance in plant subjected to treatment with a salt solution, respectively. However, the NO scavenger and inhibitor

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M. Lenny Wells, Eric P. Prostko, and O. Wendell Carter

(volatility). Previous experience with injury to susceptible crops has indicated synthetic auxin herbicides may be especially prone to off-target problems due to volatility and efficacy at low rates ( Behrens and Lueschen, 1979 ; Sciumbato et al., 2004

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Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, and Glenn Sakamoto

table salt (400 lb/acre a.i.) (Morton's; Morton International, Chicago) were applied 2 d after transplanting (DAT). Hand-broadcast application of the table salt treatment was conducted 28 DAT to impose foliar injury on the weed seedlings present. The