factors, such as crop rotation, soil type, and marketing, influence cropping decisions, production costs are vital information for production and pricing decisions. This article presents components of crop budgets from two Pennsylvania organic farms. These
David Conner and Anusuya Rangarajan
Erik M. Hardy and Dana M. Blumenthal
treatment responses ( Guertal and Elkins, 1996 ). To address this issue, randomization and frequent rotation of pots within greenhouse experiments is necessary. Depending on the size of the experiment, however, a manual rotation process can be labor
George E. Boyhan, Julia W. Gaskin, Elizabeth L. Little, Esendugue G. Fonsah and Suzanne P. Stone
in northeast Georgia indicate demand exceeds supply. Growers themselves have identified the need for better production information and the need for research-based information on crop rotations adapted to regional growing conditions. Organic farms in
David Sotomayor-Ramírez, Miguel Oliveras-Berrocales and Linda Wessel-Beaver
., 2002 ; Olson et al., 2011 ). In contrast, tropical pumpkin has a deeper root system that would be expected to take up residual soil N. Thus, fertilizer rates for tropical pumpkin are usually lower, in the range of 50 to 75 lb/acre of N in rotation
Charles Zachry Ogles, Joseph M. Kemble, Amy N. Wright and Elizabeth A. Guertal
. Thus, the objective of the research was to evaluate the use of HFF as a source of organic N along with inorganic N sources at various rates in a plasticulture rotation of yellow squash ( Cucurbita pepo cv. Conqueror III) (Seminis Seed Co., St. Louis
Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker and Mark E. Uchanski
The use of cover crops in rotation with a cash crop is one way to maintain and build SOM ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009 ). Cover crops are plants grown for the specific purpose of maintaining or improving soil characteristics ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009
Crop rotations can reduce problems that occur in monoculture planting systems. In 1990, at Lane, Okla., 0.5 ha of Bernow fine-loamy soil was planted to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In the following 5 years, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativas L.), navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) were planted in one of four rotations after 1, 2, or 3 years of peanut. The first vegetable planting in each annual rotation was followed by either vegetables or peanut in following years. In 3 of the 6 years, peanut or vegetables were planted in each rotation. Peanut yields in the first year averaged 6.6 Mg·ha-1, but were <1.9 Mg·ha-1 thereafter. Yields of the first vegetable planting, which followed 1 or 2 years of peanut, were normal for this location, but were significantly lower after 3 years of peanut. For second or third plantings of vegetables in rotations, yields were reduced up to 50% compared to the first vegetable planting. For most crops, the rotation that had 3 years of peanut followed by 3 years of vegetables generally produced the least cumulative yield. Numbers of sclerotia produced by soilborne plant pathogenic fungi fluctuated over the years, but were the same in the spring of the second and sixth years. Rotating these crops appears to have limited applicability for maintaining high vegetable or peanut yields.
D.C. Sanders, J.C. Gilsanz, W.J. Snerry and G.D. Hoyt
A 3-year study of cover crops (rye + crimson clover or sudex) and vegetable rotation systems was conducted using a Norfolk sandy loam soil. Cash crops were planted on all plots each spring, and in the fall, crops were snap beans/squash, sudex, or fallow. Late incorporation of cover crops depleted soil water content, resulting in a need for irrigation before spring plantings. Sudex residue had a high C: N ratio, delaying the total mineralization of N. Potato yields were not affected by rotation treatments. Cover crops improved snap bean emergence and yield. Snap beans had a differential uptake of Fe, Al, and B with cover crops. Tomato growth and yield were reduced with winter cover crops. Fall squash yield was not influenced by rotations.
Vincent M. Russo
Abiotic and biotic factors, and government farm policy, affect peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production especially in the Southern Plains of the United States. A coincident increase in vegetable production has led to interest in diversification of production on land that has historically supported peanut. A multi-year experiment was conducted from 1998 to 2001 to determine how rotating bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) with peanut affect yields of all three crops. In the first year, the site was planted to peanut, except for those areas of the field that would have monocultured bell pepper or sweet corn throughout the experiment. In following years, parts of the field that were planted with peanut were planted with either peanut, bell pepper, or sweet corn. Except for the monocultured crops, plots had 2 years of peanut and one year each of bell pepper or sweet corn in one of four rotations. Yields were determined and terminal market value was assigned to crops. Cumulative yields for monocultured bell pepper and sweet corn were 27.8 and 22.8 Mg·ha-1 after 4 years. The best yield of bell pepper or sweet corn in any rotation was 15.3 or 11.3 Mg·ha-1, respectively. Rotation did not affect peanuts, and cumulative yields for monocultured peanut were 8.39 Mg·ha-1 and averaged 2.13 Mg·ha-1 per year in rotations. Cumulative yields for all crops in rotations where vegetables were planted in the last 2 years averaged 21.5 Mg·ha-1 as opposed to 13.8 Mg·ha-1 when vegetables were planted in the middle 2 years of a 4-year rotation. Yields of all crops were modified by environmental conditions, and terminal market price affected crop value so that high yields were not always associated with high returns.
John Seliga, Vernon Shattuck and Russel Johnston
A study was conducted from 1989 to 1991 to examine the effects of continuous tomato cropping, short-term crop rotation and, nitrogen fertilization rates on processing tomato quality. Research was conducted at two sites in southwestern Ontario, Leamington and Dresden, in split-plot experimental design. The rotations included tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) (underseeded with red clover (Trifolium pratense), tomato-winter wheat-soybean (Glycine max), tomato-alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and tomato-rye (Secale cereale). Nitrogen fertilization rates of 0, 45, 90 and 135 kg/ha were used. Processing tomato cv. Heniz 9230 and Nabisco Brands Ltd. 7107 were assessed for colour, % soluble solids and total solids, and blossom end rot [BER]. In most instances, continuous tomato [C-T] had significantly poorer colour, soluble solids, and total solids than fruit from the various crop rotations. High nitrogen rates for C-T at Leamington, resulted in improved soluble solids and total solids, but had no significant effect on colour. A lower incidence of BER consistently occurred with low rates of nitrogen. Our results indicate that short-term crop rotation and nitrogen management in processing tomatoes can enhance fruit quality when compared to C-T.