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R. Karina Gallardo, Diem Nguyen, Vicki McCracken, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, and James R. McFerson

, we relied on a pre-survey interview with 14 breeders to reduce the traits for each crop to ≈50. In total, there were 77 plant and fruit traits considered in the four rosaceous crops included in this study. In an attempt to reduce the complexity of our

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki A. McCracken, James Luby, James R. McFerson, Lan Liu, and Amy Iezzoni

The rosaceous plant family includes numerous fruit, nut, and ornamental specialty crops, including almond, apple, apricot, caneberry, cherry, peach, pear, plum, rose, and strawberry. It is the third most economically important plant family with over

Open access

Qin Yang and Yan Fu

Prunus salicina × Prunus armeniaca . However, studies on how to overcome the distant hybridization incompatibility in the loquat have not been reported. The loquat is an evergreen rosaceous fruit tree that is native to southeastern China, but is

Open access

Griffith J. Buck

Abstract

Although roses have been propagated by grafting for more than a century, there has been relatively no concerted breeding effort to develop rootstocks (understocks) as has been done for rosaceous fruit crops. Selection of cultivars, both asexually and sexually propagated, that have been used for propagating roses has come about so far more by fortuitious circumstance than by design. A survey (1) of rootstocks used in rose propagation indicated that the largest number were derivatives of either the Caninae or the Synstylae tribes, with the Caninae being more prevalent in Europe and the Synstylae in the U.S. Also, the survey delineated those qualities desired as well as those in which the commonly-used rose root-stocks were deficient. Characteristics found lacking were root flexibility, a trait of importance to to all nurserymen packaging rose plants either for sale or shipment, tolerance to low soil temp, and resistance or tolerance to soil-borne pests such as nematodes.

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Ryutaro Tao, Hisayo Yamane, Akira Sugiura, Hideki Murayama, Hidenori Sassa, and Hitoshi Mori

. We thank Yamagata Prefectural Horticultural Experiment Station and Fruit Tree Research Station of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan for providing us with plant materials. We also thank H. Hirano of Yokohama City University

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H. Yamane, R. Tao, A. Sugiura, N. Hauck, and A. Iezzoni

Most fruit tree species of Prunus exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles (S-alleles). One interesting aspect of gametophytic self-incompatibility is that it commonly “breaks down” as a result of polyploidy, resulting in self-compatible individuals. This phenomenon is exhibited in the diploid sweet cherry (P. avium) and the tetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus), in which most cultivars are self-compatible. Recently, S-gene products in pistil of Prunus species were shown to be S-RNases. As sour cherry is one Prunus species, it is likely to possess S-alleles encoding pistil S-RNases. To confirm this, we surveyed stylar extracts of 11 sour cherry cultivars, including six self-compatible and five self-incompatible cultivars, by 2D-PAGE. As expected, all 11 cultivars tested yielded glycoprotein spots similar to S-RNases of other Prunus species in terms of Mr, immunological characteristics, and N-terminal sequences. A cDNA clone encoding one of these glycoproteins was cloned from the cDNA library constructed from styles with stigmas of a self-compatible cultivar, `Erdi Botermo'. Deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA clone contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five conserved regions of rosaceous S-RNases. In order to determine the inheritance of self-incompatibility and S-allele diversity in sour cherry, we conducted genomic DNA blot analysis for sour cherry germplasm collections and mapping populations in MSU using the cDNA as a probe. To date, it appears as if self-compatibility in sour cherry is not simply controlled by a self-fertile allele as demonstrated in other Prunus species.

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Shuoli Zhao, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken, James McFerson, and Desmond R. Layne

, consumers. Dandekar and Iezzoni (2012) emphasized that new cultivars of rosaceous fruits play a vital role to improve fruit quality, increase producer production and consumer consumption, increase fruit competitiveness, and enhance the profit of every

Open access

Zongyu Li, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki A. McCracken, Chengyan Yue, Ksenija Gasic, Gregory Reighard, and James R. McFerson

-demanded fruit quality with durable resistance to major diseases ( Iezzoni, 2018 ); however, improving these sets of attributes, in a single cultivar is difficult to achieve and highly resource-intensive for rosaceous crops such as peach [ Prunus persica

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Tom Gradziel, Ksenija Gasic, Gregory L. Reighard, John Clark, and Amy Iezzoni

supply, inconsistent quality, and fruit handling problems ( Brunke and Chang, 2012 ). Consumers of fresh peaches are often frustrated with inconsistent flavor and textural quality, flesh browning, and insipid taste ( Brunke and Chang, 2012 ). To enhance

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu, and Yuanwen Teng

Pear ( Pyrus L.) is an important commercial fruit crop widely cultivated around the world. Since the 1980s, with the introduction and breeding of improved cultivars, the planting area of early-maturing chinese sand pear cultivars has gradually